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Goguryeo

From Academic Kids

Template:Chinesename koreanname Goguryeo (also known as Koguryŏ or Gāogōul) (37 BC-668) was an empire in Manchuria and northern Korea. It is referred to as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, along with Baekje and Silla.

The modern name "Korea" derives from the medieval Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which in turn took its name from a contracted form of "Goguryeo".

Contents

History

Template:History of Korea

According to Samguk Sagi, Emperor Jumong (posthumously called Emperor Dongmyeongseong) founded the empire in 37 BC around what is now the border between China and North Korea. It gained power while China was fragmented. The maximum extent of the kingdom was reached during the reigns of Emperor Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Emperor Jangsu. During this period they ruled three fourths of Korean peninsula and most of Manchuria. It was overthrown by an alliance of Silla and Chinese Tang Empire in 668. Tang initially attempted to set up a military government, but this did not last. The southern part of Goguryeo was seized by Silla, and the rest was succeeded by Balhae.

Balhae, established in 698 claimed it as successor of Goguryeo in her diplomatic negotiations with Japan. Taebong, initially called Hu-Goguryeo ("Later Goguryeo"), claimed her succession of Goguryeo and so did Goryeo, which was even named after Goguryeo.

Culture

Remains of castles, palaces and several artifacts have been found in North Korea, including ancient paintings in a Goguryeo tomb complex. Some ruins are also still visible in Manchuria, for example at Onyeosan ("Five Maiden Peaks") near Ji'an (集安) in northeastern China, thought to be the site of the first city of Goguryeo. Some cultural artifacts still remain in modern Korean culture, for example, Ondol, Goguryeo's unique floor heating system. A modernized version can be found in the floor of every modern house in Korea.

Language

The Goguryeo language is unknown except for a small number of words, which mostly suggests that it was similar to the language of Silla and the Tungusic languages. Most Korean linguists see that Goguryeo language was closest to the Altai languages out of the three dominant states after Old Joseon. The Goguryeo names for government posts are mostly similar to those of Baekje and Silla. Chinese record suggest that the languages of Goguryeo and Fuyu (Buyeo), East Okjeo, and Old Joseon (Go-Joseon) were similar, while Goguryeo language differed significantly from that of Malgal (Mohe). Similarities in certain vocabulary with Old Japanese have been noted as well. [1] (http://www.msu.edu/~jk13/Abs.Beckwith.pdf) Some words of Goguryeo origin can be found in the old Korean language (early 10th-late 14th centuries) but most were replaced by Silla-originated ones before long. Some linguists propose the so-called "Fuyu languages" that included the languages of Fuyu, Goguryeo, and the upper class of Baekje, and Old Japanese. Supporters of the Altaic language family often classifies the Goguryeo language as a member of that language family. Striking similarities between Baekje and Goguryeo can also be found.

Modern politics

Most historians have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a Korean state, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The Chinese have traditionally viewed Goguryeo as a foreign state that was part of the China-centred tribute system. Then, in accordance with a more inclusive view of the modern People's Republic of China as a multi-ethnic nation state, the concept of Chinese history was expanded to encompass all states that developed principally in the current territory of China. The accepted position among Chinese government historians therefore became that the history of Goguryeo before the capital was transferred to Pyongyang in the Korean Peninsula was to be considered part of Chinese history.

Some have interpreted Chinese position in the 1990s as implying that Goguryeo was to be treated as a regional power of China as well as interpreting efforts by Chinese scholars to describe the history of Goguryeo as part of Chinese history to de-emphasise or deny Korea's claim to the kingdom's legacy. The Chinese government launched a 20-billion-yuan (2.4 billion US dollars) project dealing with China's Northeast in 2002 whose aims have been interpreted by some as treating Goguryeo as a local government within China, rewriting history textbooks and restoring important Goguryeo sites in China. This was followed by protests from scholars from South Korea. As of 2004 this was threatening to lead to diplomatic disputes between China and South Korea and was contributing to growing anti-Chinese sentiment in the latter. As such, the subject of Goguryeo history now overlaps somewhat with political disputes, although all of the governments involved seem to exhibit no desire to see the issue damage relations. The existence of a sizeable ethnic Korean minority in the former Goguryeo territories in China, the issue of political influence over North Korea in the case of a collapse of the regime, and some nervousness over the rapidly increasing power of China add to the fuel of the dispute.

See Gando Convention for more information about modern politics in the area.

Goguryeo Kings

The following tables give the names of the Goguryeo Kings in Korean followed by Chinese characters with Pinyin transcription.

Legendary line

Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal name Period of reign
King Dongmyeong 동명성왕 東明聖王 Dōngmng shngwng 高朱蒙 Gāozhūmng, 鄒Zōu?, 象解 Xingjiě (37 BC-19 BC)
King Yuri 유리왕 琉璃明王 Lil mngwng 類利 Lil, 孺留 Rli (19 BC-18 AD)
King Daemusin 대무신왕 大武神王 Dwǔ shnwng, 大解朱留王 Djiězhūliwng 無恤 Wx (18-44)
King Minjung 민중왕 閔中王 Mǐnzhōng wng 解色朱 Jiěszhū (44-48)
King Mobon 모본왕 慕本王 Mběnwng 解憂 Jiěyu, 解愛婁 Jiě’ilǚ (48-53)

Note: These are the names and dates given in the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Zhūmng, 閭達 Lǘd, 始閭諧 Shǐlǘxi, 如栗 Rl, and 莫來 Mli. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when King Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contacts with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Zōumu, 儒留 Rli, and 大朱留 Dzhūli.

Great king line

Posthumous name Personal name Period of reign
King Gukjo 태조대왕 國祖王 Guzǔ wng, 大祖王 Dzǔ wng, 大祖大王 Dzǔ dwng 宮 Gōng, 於漱 Ysh 53-146
King Chadae 차대왕 次大王 Cd wng 遂成 Suchng 146-165
King Sindae 신대왕 新大王 Xīnd wng 伯固 Bg, 伯句 Bgōu 165-179

Note: The great king line with the following two kings was formed on the basis of Chinese documents like the Hou Han shu (History of the Later Han dynasty). It contains contradictions and mismatches.

Wandu-Guonei (Hwando-Guknae) line

Posthumous name Personal name Period of reign
King Gogukcheon 고국천왕 故國川王 Gguchuān wng, 國襄王Guxiāng wng 男武 Nnwǔ, 伊夷謨 Yīym 179-197
King Sansang 산상왕 山上王 Shānshng wng 廷優 Tngyōu, 位宮 Wigōng 197-227
King Dongcheon 동천왕 東川王 Dōngchuān wng, 東襄王 Dōngxiāng wng 憂位居 Yōuwijū, 郊彘 Jiāozh 227-248
King Jungcheon 중천왕 中川王 Zhōngchuān wng, 中襄王 Zhōngxiāng wng 然弗 Rnf 227-248
King Seocheon 서천왕 西川王 Xīchuān wng, 西襄王 Xīxiāng wng 藥盧 Yol, 若友 Ruyu 248-270
King Bongsang 봉상왕 烽上王 Fēngshng wng, 鴙葛王 Zhgě wng 相夫 Xiāngf, 插矢婁 Chāshǐlǚ 292-300
King Micheon 미천왕 美川王 Měichuān wng, 好攘王 Hǎorng wng 乙弗 Yǐf, 憂拂 Yōuf 300-331
King Gogugwon 고국원왕 故國原王 Gguyun wng, 國岡上王 Gugāngshng wng 斯由 Sīyu, 劉 Li 331-371
King Sosurim 소수림왕 小獸林王 Xiǎoshuln wng, 小解朱留王 Xiǎojiězhūli wng 丘夫 Qiūfū 371-384
King Gogugyang 고국양왕 故國攘王 Ggurng wng 伊連 Yīlin, 於只支 Yzhǐzhī 384-391
King Gwanggaeto the Great 광개토대왕 廣開土王 Guǎngkāitǔ wng 談德 Tnd, 安 Ān 391-413

P'yŏngyang line

Posthumous name Personal name Period of reign
King Jangsu 장수왕 長壽王 Chngshu wng 巨連 Jlin, 高璉 Gāolin 412-490
King Munjamyeong 문자명왕 文咨明王Wnzīmng wng, 文咨王 Wnzī wng, 明治好王 Mngzhhǎo wng 羅雲 Luyn, 高雲 Gāoyn 491-519
King Anjang 안장왕 安藏王 Ānzng wng 興安 Xīng’ān, 高安 Gāo’ān 519-531
King Anwon 안원왕 安原王 Ānyun wng 寶廷 Bǎotng, 高廷 Gāotng 531-545
King Yangwon 양원왕 陽原王 Yngyun wng, 陽崗上好王 Ynggāngshnghǎo wng 平成 Pngchng 545-559
King Pyeongwon 평원왕 平原王 Pngyun wng, 平崗上好王 Pnggāngshnghǎo wng, 平崗上王 Pnggāngshng wng, 狛鵠香岡上王 Pgxiānggāngshng wng 陽成 Yngchng, 湯 Tāng, 高陽 Gāoyng 559-590
King Yeongyang 영양왕 嬰陽王 Yīngyng wng, 平陽王 Pngyng wng 高元 Gāoyun, 大元 Dyun 590-618
King Yeongnyu 영류왕 營留王 Yngli wng, 建武王 Jinwǔ wng 高建武 Gāojinwǔ, 成 Chng, 高武 Gāowǔ 618-642
King Bojang 보장왕 寶藏王 Bǎozng wng 高藏 Gāozng, 寶藏 Bǎozng 642-668

Note: The royal surname Go/Gao 高 seems to have been adopted in the early 5th century when King Gwanggaeto was acknowledged as a member of the Northern Yan imperial family by Gao Yun 高雲 (or Murong Yun 慕容雲), Emperor of the Northern Yan, whose grandfather He (和) was in line of the Goguryeo royal family. According to the Jin shu (History of the Jin dynasty), Gao Yun took the surname Gao from Gaoyang 高陽氏 (or Zhuan Xu, one of the San Huang Wu Di) but it is doubtful. Later history books say that Go was named after the country name Goguryeo.

See also

External link

eo:Kogurjo fr:Koguryŏ ko:고구려 nl:Lijst van koningen van Koguryo ja:高句麗 pt:Koguryo sv:Koguryo zh:高句丽

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