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Glottal consonant

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Places of articulation
Labial
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Glottal
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Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. Many phoneticians consider them be states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have. That is, they should be in the IPA "other" chart. However, they are kept in the main chart for historical reasons.

Glottal consonants in the International Phonetic Alphabet:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
Image:Xsampa-questionmark.png voiceless glottal stop Hawaiian okina [] okina
Image:Xsampa-hslash.png breathy voiced glottal "fricative" Czech Praha [] Prague
Image:Xsampa-h.png voiceless glottal "fricative" English hat [] hat

The "fricatives" are not true fricatives. This is a historical usage. They instead represent transitional states of the glottis without a specific place of articulation. is a breathy-voiced transition, and could be transcribed as .

Because the glottis is necessarily closed for the glottal stop, it cannot be voiced.

The glottal stop occurs in many languages. Often all vocalic onsets are preceded by a glottal stop, for exemple in German. The Hawaiian language writes the glottal stop as an opening single quote . Some alphabets like the Arabic have a dedicated letter (called "Hamza") for the glottal stop consonant.

See also

de:Glottal fr:Consonne glottale ja:声門音 ko:성문음 sv:Glottal

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