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Geneva Protocol

From Academic Kids

The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty to ban the use of chemical and biological weapons. It was signed at Geneva on June 17, 1925 and was entered into force on February 8, 1928.

It prohibits the use of chemical weapons and biological weapons, but has nothing to say about production, storage or transfer. It was in 1972 augmented with the Biological Weapons Convention and in 1993 with the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Contents

History

Germany first used chemical weapons in Ypres, Belgium in 1915 by releasing chlorine gas. The Treaty of Versailles included some provisions that banned Germany from either manufacturing or importing chemical weapons. Similiar treaties banned Austria, Bulgaria, and Hungary from chemical weapons.

At the end of World War I, the Allies wanted to reaffirm the Treaty of Versailles, and the United States introduced the Treaty of Washington. The United States Senate gave consent for ratification but it failed to enter into force. France objected to the submarine provisions the treaty and thus the treaty failed.

At the 1925 Geneva Conference for the Supervision of the International Traffic in Arms the French suggested a protocol for non-use of poisonous gases. Poland suggested the addition of bacteriological weapons. It was signed on June 17th.


Chemical Weapons Prohibitions

Date Name Effect
1675 Strasbourg Agreement The first international agreement limiting the use of chemical weapons, in this case, poison bullets.
1874 Brussels Convention on the Law and Customs of War Prohibited the employment of poison or poisoned weapons, and the use of arms, projectiles or material to cause unnecessary suffering.
1899 1st Peace Conference at the Hague European Nations prohibited "the use of projectiles whose sole purpose is the release of asphyxiating or harmful gases"
1907 2nd Peace Conference at the Hague The Conference added the use of poisons or poisoned weapons.
1922 Treaty of Washington Failed because France objected to clauses relating to submarine warfare.
1925 Geneva Protocol Prohibited the use of "asphyxiating gas, or any other kind of gas, liquids, substances or similar materials"
1972 Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention Failed - 143 parties, but no verification mechanism
1993 Chemical Weapons Convention Signed Comprehensive bans on development, production, stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons, with destruction timelines.
1997 Chemical Weapons Convention come Into Force Inspections begin.

Ratification Dates

A=Accession R=Ratification D=Declaration of Succession

Country Date Accession, Ratification, or Declaration of Succession
Afghanistan December 9, 1986 A
Albania December 20, 1989 A
Algeria January 27, 1992 A
Angola November 8, 1990 A
Antigua and Barbuda April 27, 1988 D
Argentina May 12, 1969 A
Australia May 24, 1930 A
Austria May 9, 1928 R
Bahrain December 9, 1988 A
Bangladesh May 20, 1989 A
Barbados July 16, 1976 D
Belgium December 4, 1928 R
Benin December 9, 1986 A
Bhutan February 19, 1979 A
Bhutan February 19, 1979 A
Bolivia August 13, 1985 A
Brazil August 28, 1970 R
Bulgaria March 7, 1934 R
Burkina Faso March 3, 1971 A
Cambodia March 15, 1983 A
Cameroon July 20, 1989 A
Canada May 6, 1930 R
Cape Verde October 15, 1991 A
Central African Republic July 31, 1970 A
Chile July 2, 1935 R
China, People's Republic of July 13, 1952 D
China, Republic of August 7, 1929 R
Côte d’Ivoire July 27, 1970 A
Cuba June 24, 1966 A
Cyprus December 12, 1966 D
Denmark May 5, 1930 R
Dominican Republic December 8, 1970 A
Ecuador September 16, 1970 A
Egypt December 6, 1928 R
Estonia August 28, 1931 R
Ethiopia October 7, 1935 R
Equatorial Guinea May 20, 1989 A
Fiji March 21, 1973 D
Finland June 26, 1929 R
France May 10, 1926 R
Gambia, The November 5, 1966 D
Germany April 25, 1929 R
Ghana May 3, 1967 A
Greece May 30, 1931 R
Grenada January 3, 1989 D
Guatemala May 3, 1983 A
Guinea Bissau May 20, 1989 A
Holy See October 18, 1966 A
Hungary October 11, 1952 A
Iceland November 2, 1967 A
India April 9, 1930 R
Indonesia January 21, 1971 D
Iran November 5, 1929 A
Iraq September 8, 1931 A
Ireland August 29, 1930 A
Israel February 20, 1969 A
Italy April 3, 1928 R
Jamaica July 28, 1970 D
Japan May 21, 1970 R
Jordan January 20, 1977 A
Kenya July 6, 1970 A
Korea (Republic of) January 4, 1989 A
Korea (Democratic Peoples Republic of) January 4, 1989 A
Kuwait December 15, 1971 A
Laos May 20, 1989 A
Latvia June 3, 1931 R
Lebanon April 17, 1969 A
Lesotho March 10, 1972 D
Liberia June 17, 1927 A
Libya December 29, 1971 A
Liechtenstein September 6, 1991 A
Lithuania June 15, 1933 R
Luxembourg September 1, 1936 R
Madagascar August 2, 1967 A
Malawi September 14, 1970 A
Malaysia December 10, 1970 A
Maldives December 27, 1966 D
Malta September 21, 1964 D
Mauritius March 12, 1968 D
Mexico May 28, 1932 A
Monaco January 6, 1967 A
Mongolia December 6, 1968 A
Morocco October 13, 1970 A
Nepal May 9, 1969 A
Netherlands October 31, 1930 R
New Zealand May 24, 1930 A
Nicaragua October 5, 1990 R
Niger April 5, 1967 D
Nigeria October 15, 1968 A
Norway July 27, 1932 R
Pakistan April 15, 1960 D
Panama December 4, 1970 A
Papua New Guinea September 2, 1980 D
Paraguay October 22, 1933 A
Peru August 13, 1985 A
Philippines June 8, 1973 A
Poland February 4, 1929 R
Portugal July 1, 1930 R
Qatar October 18, 1976 A
Romania August 23, 1929 R
Russia April 5, 1928 R
Rwanda May 11, 1964 D
St. Kitts & Nevis April 27, 1989 D
St. Lucia December 21, 1988 D
St. Vincent and the Grenadines April 23, 1999 D
Saudia Arabia January 27, 1971 A
Senegal June 15, 1977 A
Sierra Leone March 20, 1967 A
Slovakia January 1, 1993 D
Solomon Islands June 1, 1981 D
South Africa May 24, 1930 A
Spain August 22, 1929 R
Sri Lanka January 20, 1954 A
Sudan December 17, 1980 A
Swaziland July 23, 1991 A
Sweden April 25, 1930 R
Switzerland July 12, 1932 R
Syria December 17, 1968 A
Tanzania April 22, 1963 A
Thailand June 6, 1931 R
Togo April 5, 1971 A
Tonga July 19, 1971 D
Trinidad & Tobago August 31, 1962 D
Tunisia July 12, 1967 A
Turkey October 5, 1929 R
Uganda May 24, 1965 A
United Kingdom April 9, 1930 R
United States April 10, 1975 R
Uruguay April 12, 1977 R
Venezuela February 8, 1928 R
Vietnam December 15, 1980 A
Yemen March 11, 1971 A
Zimbabwe April 18, 1980 A

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