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(Redirected from Gadir)
This article deals with the Spanish city. For other uses, see Cadiz (disambiguation).

Template:Infobox City

Cádiz is a coastal city in southwestern Spain in the region of Andalusia. It is the capital of the province of Cádiz. As of the 2003 census the population was 134,989, and the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 406,095, ranking as the 16th-largest urban area of Spain.

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History

The city was originally founded as Gadir (Phoenician גדר "walled city") by the Phoenicians, who used it in their trade with Tartessos. The Greeks knew it as Gadira or Gadeira. Traditionally, its date of establishment is about 1100 BCE, although as of 2004 no archaological finds have been found that date back further than the 9th century BCE. One resolution of the discrepancy has been to assume that it was in the initial phase merely a small trading post. It is regarded as the most ancient extant city in western Europe. According to Greek legend, Gadir was founded by Heracles after killing Geryon. Indeed, one of its notable features during this era was the temple dedicated to the Phoenician god Melqart. Some historians think that the columns of this temple gave origin to the myth of the Columns of Hercules (Melqart was associated by the Greeks with Heracles, or Hercules).

In about 500 BCE the city fell under the sway of Carthage. In 206, the city fell to Roman forces under Scipio Africanus. Under the Romans it was renamed Gades. The city flourished under Roman rule, but with the decline of the Roman Empire, Gades' commercial importance began to fade.

Under Moorish rule, the city was called Qādis (Arabic قادس), and the modern Spanish name Cádiz was derived from this form.

During the Age of Exploration the city had another renaissance: Columbus sailed from Cádiz on his second voyage in 1495, and the city later became the home port of the Spanish treasure fleet.

Sir Francis Drake destroyed a Spanish fleet in the harbor of Cádiz in April 1587. In the Anglo-Spanish War Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Cádiz from 1655 and 1657, during which one of his captains, Richard Stayner destroyed most of the Spanish treasure fleet. A galleon of treasure was captured, and the overall loss to Spain was estimated at £2,000,000.

In the 18th century, the city surpassed Seville as the port monopolizing commerce with Spanish America.

Cádiz was the seat of the liberal Cortes fighting Joseph I of Spain in the Peninsula war; the Spanish Constitution of 1812 was proclaimed there. Cádiz is also famous by its carnival with Chirigotas (amateur satirical choruses) competing for a prize.

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Cadiz_cathedral.jpg
The Cádiz Cathedral in Cádiz, Spain.

Monuments

Cádiz, being the oldest city in western Europe, is home to many beautiful and historic monuments.

Cádiz Cathedral

This baroque style cathedral was built over a period of 116 years. Over this period, the cathedral experienced many changes in style. The cathedral began in baroque style, proceeded to the rococo style, and was finished in neoclassic style. Its chapels have many paintings and relics from the Old Cathedral and the other monasteries. The cathedral commissioned be completed by 1260, but it was burned in 1596. The reconstruction, which was not started until 1776, was supervised by the architect Vicente Arcero who had also built the Granada Cathedral. This architect left the project and was succeeded by several other architects.

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Gran_teatro_falla.jpg
The Gran Teatro Falla in Cádiz, Spain.

Gran Teatro Falla

The theatre was built between 1884 and 1905 over the remains of the previous Gran Teatro. The architect was Adolfo Morales de los Rios, and the direction was carried out by Juan Cabrera Latorre. The outside is covered by red bricks and is of mudejar style.

Puertas de Tierra

This great wall came from a primitive wall of the 6th century. After many modifications and improvements this great wall was built with severals layers of walls, but nowadays they have almost completely dissappeared with only one left remaining.

Pylons of Cádiz

The Pylons of Cadiz are electricity pylons of unusual design crossing the Bay of Cádiz. The pylons are 158 metres high and designed for two circuits. The pylons were designed by A.M. Toscano. The very unconventional construction consists of a frustum steel framework construction with a narrow grid width and one crossbar on the top for the conductors.

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Cadiz_playa_caleta.jpg
The Playa Caleta in Cádiz, Spain.

Beaches

Cádiz, a city on a peninsula, is a home for some of the country's most beautiful beaches.


Caleta

Caleta is the best-loved beach of Cádiz; it has always been in the Carnival songs due to its unequalled beauty and its proximity to the Barrio de la Viña. It is the old city beach, and it is situated between two castles, San Sebastian castle and Santa Catalina castle. It is around four hundred metres long and thirty metres wide at low tide.

Victoria Beach

It is the most visited beach by the tourists and the native people of Cádiz. It is about three kilometres long, and it has an average width of fifty metres of sand. The moderate swell and the absence of rocks allow the entire family to enjoy bathing at this beach. It is separated from the city by an avenue; on the other side of the avenue there are a lot of shops and resturants. The beach provides a lot of activities, including sport areas, places where you can rent beach umbrellas, sun loungers, and jetskis.

External links

Template:Commonsde:Cádiz es:Cádiz eo:Kadizo fr:Cadix la:Gades nl:Cádiz (stad) pl:Kadyks pt:Cádiz fi:Cádiz sv:Cádiz

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