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Fes

From Academic Kids

This article is about the city Fes in Morocco. For other meanings please see Fez.

Blue Gate to the Old Medina of Fes
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Blue Gate to the Old Medina of Fes
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MoroccoFes_city1.jpg

Fes or Fez (Arabic فـاس, French Fs) (located at Template:Coor dms) is the third largest city in Morocco, after Casablanca and Rabat, with a population of 940,000. It is one of the four so-called "imperial cities" (the others are Marrakesh, Meknes and Rabat). The Medina of Fes-al-Bali, the larger of the two medinas of Fes, is believed to be the largest contiguous carfree area in the world.

History

The city was founded by Idris I in 789. In 810 the Kairouyine mosque, one of the oldest and largest in Africa, was built by Idris II, and the associated university was founded in 859. The city was populated by Muslims from elsewhere in North Africa, the Middle East, Moriscos, as well as many Jews, who had their own quarter, or Mellah, in the city. Fes became the scientific and religious center of Morocco, where both Muslims and Christians from Europe came to study. Many Muslim refugees came to Fes after the reconquest of Spain in 1492. Fez became part of the Moroccan Empire in 1548, and in 1554 the Ottoman Turks briefly captured it.

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Leather_dyeing_vats_in_Fes.jpg
Leather dyeing vats in Fes

Fes became the center of the Alaouite Dynasty in 1649, and it was a major trading post of the Barbary Coast of North Africa. Until the 19th century it was the only source of Fez hats, before they began to be manufactured in France and Turkey; originally, the dye for the hats came from a berry that was grown outside the city. Fes was also the end of a north-south gold trading route from Timbuktu.

Fes was the capital of Morocco intermittently in the past, lastly until 1912, when most of Morocco came under French control and Rabat became the capital (which it remained when Morocco became independent in 1956).

External links

de:Fs

fr:Fez (Maroc) it:Fes ja:フェズ nl:Fez (Marokko) pt:Fez

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