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Exeter

From Academic Kids

For other uses, see Exeter (disambiguation).
City of Exeter
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Exeter_-_Devon_dot.png
Devon

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DevonExeter.png
Exeter


Shown within Devon
Geography
Status:City
Region:South West England
Admin. County:Devon
Area:
- Total
Ranked 303rd
47.03 km²
Admin. HQ:Exeter
ONS code:18UC
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2003 est.)
- Density
Ranked 179th
113,338
2,410 / km²
Ethnicity:97.6% White
Politics
Arms of Exeter City Council
Exeter City Council
http://www.exeter.gov.uk
Leadership:Leader & Cabinet
Executive:All party
MP:Ben Bradshaw

The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in England, UK. It is located at Template:Coor dms. In the 2001 census its population was recorded at 111,066. The city's motto, Semper fidelis, was suggested by Elizabeth I.

Contents

Situation

Until the construction of main road by-passes in the twentieth century, Exeter was the lowest bridging point of the River Exe, and therefore developed as an administrative and route centre. From Saxon times until the nineteenth century, the diocese of Exeter covered the whole of the counties of Devon and Cornwall, and civil administration and services tended to follow the lines of the ecclesiastical. Exeter was also a port: the limit of tides of the River Exe lies below Exeter, and the small town of Topsham on the estuary (nowadays within the city limits) developed as a port for the city, but goods were transported to the city's quays in lighters. Eventually a ship canal was constructed so that ocean-going vessels could reach the city's quays, and this remained in regular use until ships increased in size with the development of steam power. It is still used for leisure boating.

Economy

The city provides light industries and services to a sizable area. The Met Office, the main weather forecasting organisation for the United Kingdom and one of the most significant in the world, relocated from Bracknell in Berkshire to Exeter in early 2004. It is one of the three largest employers in the area (the others being the University of Exeter and Devon County Council), providing a welcome boost to the local economy.

On June 26, 2004, Exeter was granted Fairtrade City status.

In June 2005 it was singled out among towns with populations between 5,000 and 150,000 as the worst "clone town" in Great Britain. By "clone town" the New Economics Foundation meant "a place that has had the individuality of its high street shops replaced by a monochrome strip of global and national chains"; by the foundation's metric Exeter is the town most easily "mistaken for dozens of other bland town centres across the country." Exeter's High Street had only one independent shop at the time of the survey, and the least varied selection of shop types, with "little more than clothing retailers, a few electronics shops and some stationery or bookstores" instead of the independence and diversity seen in towns such as Hebden Bridge, Peebles, and Lewes. This was a superficial judgement, suggesting the Foundation's researchers had not looked very hard; while Exeter's independent shops do mostly eschew the High Street (a characterless example of quick post-war reconstruction following the 1942 bombing), there are plenty of them in the more interesting roads immediately connecting to it.

History

There was a settlement on the banks of the Exe prior to the Romans' foundation of Isca Dumnoniorum in c. AD 50, building a defensive wall to surround the settlement. Isca was the most south-westerly Roman fortified settlement in England. Significant parts of the Roman wall remain, though the present visible structure was largely created on the orders of Alfred the Great to protect the far west of his kingdom following the Viking occupation of 876. Most of its route can be traced on foot. There is a substantial Roman baths complex that was excavated in the 1970s[1] (http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba65/feat2.shtml), but because of its proximity to the cathedral, it has not been practicable to retain the excavation for public view. Exeter was also the southern starting point for the Fosse Way Roman road.

In 876 Exeter was attacked and captured by the Danes. King Alfred drove them out the next year.

The city was again besieged by the Danes in 894 however they were not able to take the city, and soon abandoned the siege.

In 1067 the city rebelled against William the Conqueror who promptly marched west to besiege the city. The city submitted only after a 18 day siege. Part of the Capulation agreement was that all the nobles in the city would be confirmed in their positions as long as a castle was built.

Exeter was held against King Stephen by Baldwin de Redvers in 1140 and submitted only after a three month siege when the supplies of fresh water ran out.

The Livery Dole Almshouses and Chapel at Heavitree were founded in March 1591 and finished in 1594. They can still be seen today in the street which bears the name Livery Dole.

Exeter was at first a Parliamentary town in the English Civil War in the largely Royalist South West, but it was captured by the Royalists on the 4th of September 1643 and it remained in their control until near the end of the war.

Early in the English Industrial revolution, Exeter's industry developed on the basis of locally available agricultural products, since the city's location on a fast-flowing river gave it ready access to water power. However when steam power replaced water in the later nineteenth century, Exeter was too far from sources of coal (or iron) to develop further. As a result the city declined in relative importance, and was spared the rapid nineteenth century development that changed many historic European cities.

Exeter was bombed by the German Luftwaffe during WWII, in a 1942 raid that formed part of the Baedeker Blitz. Forty acres (160,000 m²) of the city, particularly adjacent to its central High Street and Sidwell Street, were levelled by incendiary bombing. Many historic buildings were destroyed, and others, including Exeter Cathedral, damaged. The city was rebuilt in the 1950s in an attempt to preserve its ancient heritage, though many feel that the post-war reconstruction was weak and failed to conserve partly-damaged structures that could have been saved, as well as making too many concessions to motor traffic. Currently, despite some local opposition, one rebuilt street, Princesshay, is being redeveloped again in a more modern style. Previously regarded as second only to Bath as an architectural site in southern England, Exeter is now a city with some beautiful buildings rather than a beautiful city. As a result, although there is a significant tourist trade, Exeter is not dominated by tourism.

Politics and administration

Exeter forms a single parliamentary seat. It is relatively marginal, and since the second World War its Member of Parliament has usually been drawn from the governing party. At the United Kingdom general election, 1997, Ben Bradshaw was elected as MP for Exeter, and he retained the seat at the elections of 2001 and 2005.

Exeter's city council is a local government district authority, and shares responsibility for local government with the Devon County Council. In recent years, the city council has been dominated by Labour Party and Liberal Democrat members. Since 2003, no party has had a majority on the council.

Notable Buildings

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The front of Exeter Cathedral

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Ruined gatehouse at Rougemont Castle


Ruined gatehouse at Rougemont Castle. Note the red sandstone, characteristic of many older Exeter buildings.

Among the notable buildings in Exeter are:

  • The cathedral, founded in 1050 when the bishop's seat was moved from the nearby town of Crediton (birthplace of Saint Boniface) because Exeter's Roman walls offered better protection against "pirates", presumably Vikings. A statue of Richard Hooker, the sixteenth century Anglican theologian, who was born in Exeter, has a prominent place in the Cathedral Close.
  • The ruins of Rougemont Castle, built soon after the Norman Conquest; later parts of the castle are still in use as an Assize court, though a new courts complex is under construction and the castle will probably become accessible to tourists as a result.
  • The Guildhall, the oldest municipal building in England still in use.
  • The Custom House in the attractive Quay area
  • St Nicholas Priory in Mint Lane.
  • A number of medieval churches including St Mary Steps which has an elaborate clock.

Many of these are built in the local dark red sandstone, which gives its name to the castle and the park that now surrounds it (Rougemont = red hill). A plaque near the gatehouse recalls that in 1685 Alice Molland the last person executed for witchcraft in England, was executed in Exeter.

Northenhay Gardens located just outside the castle, is the oldest public open space in the whole of England, being originally laid out in 1612 as a pleasure walk for Exeter residents. Much of Northernhay gardens now represent Victorian design, with a beautiful display of trees, mature shrubs and bushes and plenty of flower beds. There are also many statues here, most importantly the War Memorial by John Angel and the Deerstalker by E.B.Stephens. The Volunteer Memorial from 1895, also in the gardens commemorates the formation of the 1st Rifle Volunteers in 1852. Other statues include John Dinham and Thomas Dyke Ackland.

Culture

Literature

The Exeter Book, an original manuscript and one of the most important documents in Anglo-Saxon literature, is kept in the vaults of Exeter Cathedral. The Exeter Book dates back to the tenth century and is one of four manuscripts that between them contain virtually all the surviving poetry in Old English. It includes most of the more highly regarded shorter poems, some religious pieces, and a series of riddles, a handful of which are famously slightly lewd.

The Inquisitio Eliensis, the "Exon Domesday" (so called from the preservation of the volume at Exeter), is a volume of Domesday Book that contains the full details which the original returns supplied.

Theatre

The Northcott Theatre is located on the campus of the university and is one of relatively few provincial English theatres to maintain its own repertory company. Its annual open air Shakespeare performance in the grounds of Rougemont Castle is well regarded nationally. There are also two amateur theatre buildings with associated companies.

Music

  • The Cavern Club in Queen Street is the place to go for live music
  • Exeter does not have a resident professional orchestra. The Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra tours to the city regularly.
  • The cathedral choir is nationally known, and the cathedral is frequently the venue for concerts by visiting orchestras.
  • There is an annual Festival, of all the arts but with a particular concentration of musical events
  • Children of the Drone is an improvisational music collective, based in Exeter since 2001

Museums and galleries

  • The city museum is the Royal Albert Memorial Museum in Queen Street.
  • The Phoenix Arts Centre occupies the former university site in Gandy Street.
  • Spacex is a long established modern art gallery

Newspapers

Twin towns

Exeter is twinned with:

The city also seeks to maintain a relationship with HMS Exeter.

Colleges and Universities

Sports

Transport

Road

The M5 motorway to Bristol and Birmingham starts at Exeter, and connects at Bristol with the M4 to London. The older A30 road provides a shorter but sometimes slower route to London.

Going west, the A38 connects Exeter to Plymouth and South Cornwall, whilst the A30 continues to Okehampton and North Cornwall.

Rail

There are two main line railway routes from Exeter to London, the faster Great Western Main Line route via Taunton to London Paddington and the slower West of England Main Line via Salisbury to London Waterloo. Another main line, the Cross-Country Route, links Exeter with Bristol, Birmingham, the Midlands, Northern England, and Scotland. Many trains on all three lines continue westwards from Exeter, variously serving Torbay, Plymouth and Cornwall.

Local branch lines run to Paignton (see Riviera Line), Exmouth (see Avocet Line) and Barnstaple (see Tarka Line). There is also a summer weekend service to Okehampton for access to Dartmoor.

Exeter is served by two main railway stations. Exeter St David's is served by all services, whilst Exeter Central is more convenient for the city centre but served only by local services and the main line route to London Waterloo. There are also five suburban stations, St. James Park, Exeter St. Thomas, Polsloe Bridge, Pinhoe and Digby & Sowton, served only by local services.

Air

There is a small airport near the city and the local airline, previously called Jersey European and British European but now known as Flybe, is a significant local employer. The Airport offers a variety of scheduled and charter flights including a seasonal service to Toronto in Canada.

See also

External links


Districts of England - South West England Flag of England

Bath and North East Somerset | Bournemouth | Bristol | Caradon | Carrick | Cheltenham | Christchurch | Cotswold | East Devon | East Dorset | Exeter | Forest of Dean | Gloucester | Isles of Scilly | Kennet | Kerrier | Mendip | Mid Devon | North Cornwall | North Devon | North Dorset | North Somerset | North Wiltshire | Penwith | Plymouth | Poole | Purbeck | Restormel | Salisbury | Sedgemoor | South Gloucestershire | South Hams | South Somerset | Stroud | Swindon | Taunton Deane | Teignbridge | Tewkesbury | Torbay | Torridge | West Devon | West Dorset | West Somerset | West Wiltshire | Weymouth and Portland

Administrative counties with multiple districts: Cornwall - Devon - Dorset - Gloucestershire - Somerset - Wiltshire

af:Exeter

de:Exeter (England) eo:Exeter fr:Exeter kw:Karesk

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