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Conventional Egyptian chronology

From Academic Kids

This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology.

Contents

1 Old Kingdom

2 First Intermediate Period

3 Middle Kingdom

4 Second Intermediate Period

5 New Kingdom

6 Third Intermediate Period

7 Late Period

Introduction

This conventional chronology of the rulers of ancient Egypt, taking into account well accepted developments during the 20th century but not including any of the major revision proposals that have also been made in that time.

Even within a single work, often archeologists will offer several possible dates or even several whole chronologies as possibilities. Consequently, there may be discrepancies between dates shown here and in articles on particular rulers. Often there are also several possible spellings of the names.

It should be noted that there is a 60 year discrepancy between the dates proposed by these two authors. There is no attempt to remove this in the combined chronology presented below, which is the “Conventional Chronology” that is quoted by David Rohl in A Test of Time (1995, Century).

All dates are BC.

Sources

  • Predynastic Egypt is from Late Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt (http://xoomer.virgilio.it/francescoraf/).
  • The dates of Dynasties 1 to 10 are from Baines and Malek, Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Oxford, 1980).
  • The dates of Dynasties 11 to 20 are from Kitchen, "The Basics of Egyptian Chronology in Relation to the Bronze Age", in Astrom (ed) High, Middle or Low (Gothengurg, 1987), taking his low chronology.
  • The dates of Dynasties 21 to 26 are from Kitchen, Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1973, Warminster).

(This information has been supplemented from The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw (Oxford, 2000), and Digital Egypt for Universities (http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/), which was developed by The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology (http://www.petrie.ucl.ac.uk/).)

See also

Protodynastic Period

Dynasty 0 circa 3100?2920

  • Scorpion I
  • Double Falcon
  • Ny-Hor
  • Pe-Hor
  • Hat-Hor
  • Hedj-Hor
  • Crocodile
  • Scorpion II
  • Iry Hor
  • Ka
  • Narmer


Early Dynastic Period

1st Dynasty 2920-2770

  • Aha / Menes
  • Djer
  • Djet
  • Queen Merytneit
  • Den
  • Anedjib
  • Semerkhet
  • Kaa

2nd Dynasty 2770-2650

  • Hetepsekhemwy
  • Reneb
  • Ninetjer
  • Sekhemib
  • Peribsen
  • Sened
  • Weneg
  • Khasekhem
  • Khasekhemwy

Position uncertain

  • Sneferka
  • Ba (two different writings, possibly two separate kings)

Old Kingdom

3rd Dynasty

  • Netjerkhet (Djoser)
  • Sekhemkhet
  • Khaba
  • Sanakht (Nebka ?)
  • Huni (Horus Qahedjet ?)

4th Dynasty

  • Sneferu 2575-2551
  • Khufu (Cheops) 2551-2528
  • Djedefre 2528-2520
  • Khafre (Chephren) 2520-2494
  • Nebka (Bikheris of later Greek-language sources)
  • Menkhaure (Mycerinus) 2490-2472
  • Shepseskaf 2472-2467
  • Thampthis (in later Greek-language sources)

5th Dynasty

  • Userkhaf 2465-2458
  • Sahure 2458-2446
  • Neferirkare Kakai 2446-2426
  • Shepseskare Ini 2426-2419
  • Neferefre 2419-2416
  • Niuserre Izi 2416-2392
  • Menkauhore 2396-2388
  • Djedkare Izezi 2388-2356
  • Wenis (Unas) 2356-2323

6th Dynasty

First Intermediate Period

7th Dynasty

In the kinglist summaries from the third century BC historian Manetho, this is a group of 70 kings ruling 70 days: there is no evidence for this - it may be a later literary metaphor for chaos at the end of the Sixth Dynasty, chaos for which there is also no direct contemporary evidence.

8th Dynasty

  • Netjerikare
  • Menkare
  • Neferkare
  • Neferkare Nebi
  • Djedkare Shemai
  • Neferkare Khendu
  • Merenhor
  • Neferkamin
  • Nikare
  • Neferkare Tereru
  • Neferkahor
  • Neferkare Pepyseneb
  • Neferkamin Anu
  • Qakare Ibi
  • Neferkawre Kha...
  • Neferkawhor Khuwihap
  • Neferirkare

Kings with Unknown Position

  • Sekhemkare
  • Wadjkare
  • Ity
  • Iymhotep
  • Hotep ...re
  • Khui
  • Isu
  • Iytjenu


9th and 10th Dynasties 2135-1986

  • Khety (I)
  • Neferkare
  • Khety (II)
  • Senen...
  • Khety (III)
  • Khety (IV)
  • Shed...y
  • H...
  • Wahkare Khety
  • Se...re Khety
  • Nebkawre Khety
  • Meryibre Khety
  • Merykare


11th Dynasty

  • Montuhotep I 2080-2074
  • Inytoyef I (Sehertawy) 2074-2064
  • Inyotef II (Wahankh) 2064-2015
  • Inyotef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer) 2015-2007
  • Montuhotep II 2007-1986

Middle Kingdom

11th Dynasty (continued)

  • Montuhotep II (Nebhepetre) 1986-1956
  • Montuhotep III (Sankhkare) 1956-1944
  • Montuhotep IV (Nebtawyre) 1944-1937

Unknown Position

  • Intef Qakare
  • Iyibkhenetre
  • Segersen

12th Dynasty

  • Amenemhat I (Sehetepibre) 1937-1908
  • Senuseret I (Kheperkare) 1917-1872
  • Amenemhat II (Nubkaure) 1875-1840
  • Senuseret II (Khakheperre) 1842-1836
  • Senuseret III (Khakaure) 1836-1817
  • Amenemhat III (Nimaartre) 1817-1772
  • Amenemhat IV (Maakherure) 1772-1763
  • Neferusobek (Sobekkare) 1763-1759

Second Intermediate Period

13th Dynasty

21 kings for about 63 years then

  • Neferhotep 1696-1685
  • Sihathor 1685-1685
  • Sobekhotep IV 1685-1678
  • Sobekhotep V 1678-1674
  • Iaib 1674-1664
  • Ay 1664-1641

Then 6 more kings for about 20 years

14th Dynasty

About 76 minor kings of the Delta, contemporary with the second half of the 13th dynasty.

15th Dynasty 1633-1525

  • Salitis
  • Bnon
  • Apachnan (Khyan)
  • Iannas (Ianassi son of Kyan)
  • Apophis (Auserre Apepi)
  • Assis

16th Dynasty

32 minor kings contemporary with the 15th and 17th dynasties.

17th Dynasty 1606-1539

About 15 kings in all, contemporary with the 15th dynasty, the last three being

  • Tao I (Senakhtenre)
  • Tao II (Sekenenre)
  • Kamose (Wadjkheperre)

New Kingdom

18th Dynasty

19th Dynasty

  • Ramesses I (Menpehtyre) 1295-1294
  • Seti I (Manmaatre) 1294-1279
  • Ramesses II (Usermaatre-setepenre) 1279-1213
  • Merenptah (Baenre-hotephirmaat) 1213-1203
  • Amenmesse (Menmire) 1203-1200
  • Seti II (Userkheperure-setepenre) 1200-1194
  • Merneptah Siptah (Sekhaenre-meryamun, later Akhenre-setepenre) 1194-1188
  • Tausert (Sitre-meritamun) 1188-1186

20th Dynasty

Third Intermediate Period

Tanite 21st Dynasty

  • Smendes I (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 1069-1043
  • Amenemnisu (Neferkare-hekawaset) 1043-1039
  • Psusennes I (Akheperre-setepenamun) 1039-991
  • Amenemopet (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 993-984
  • Osorkon the Elder (Akheperre-setepenre) 984-978
  • Siamun (Netjerkheperre-setepenre) 978-959
  • Har-Psusennes II (Tjekheperre-setepenre) 959-945

Theban 21st Dynasty

22nd Dynasty

  • Shoshenq I (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 945-924
  • Osorkon I (Sekhemkheperre-setepenre) 924-889
  • Shoshenq II (Hekakheperre-setepenre) 890-889
  • Takelot I (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 889-874
  • Osorkon II (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 874-850
  • Harsiese (Hedjkheperre-setepenamun) 870-860
  • Takelot II (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 850-825
  • Shoshenq III (Usermaatre-setepenre/amun) 825-786
  • Shoshenq "quartus" (Hedjkheperre-setepenre) 786-773
  • Pimay (Usermaatre-setepenre/amun) 773-767
  • Shoshenk V (Akheperre) 767-730
  • Osorkon IV (Akheperre-setepenamun) 730-715

23rd Dynasty

  • Pedubast (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 818-793
  • Iuput I 804-803
  • Shoshenq IV (Usermaatre-meryamun) 793-787
  • Osorkon III (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 787-759
  • Takelot III (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 764-757
  • Rudamun (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 757-754
  • Iuput II (Usermaatre-setepenamun) 754-720
  • Shoshenq IV (Wasneterre-setepenre) 720-715

24th Dynasty

25th Dynasty

26th Dynasty

  • Ameris 715-695
  • Tefnakht I 695-688
  • Nekauba 688-672
  • Necho I (Menkheperre) 672 - 664

Late Period

26th Dynasty (continued)

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