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Coeducation

From Academic Kids

Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. Before coeducation became predominant, most important institutions of higher education restricted their enrollment to men. Women were educated in all-female schools, if at all.

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Coeducation in the United Kingdom

See Education in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, most schools are coeducational, others are boys-only and girls-only. Many previously single-sex schools have begun to accept both sexes in the past few decades, for example Clifton College began to accept girls in 1987.

Coeducation in the United States

The first coeducational institution of higher education in the United States was Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio. The Univeristy of Iowa became the first public or state university in the United States to admit women, and for much of the next century, public universities, and land grant universities in particular, would lead the way in higher education coeducation. The agitation for coeducation by early feminists grew through the American Civil War era, and by 1872 there were 97 American universities admitting women. Some institutions refused to integrate fully, but were willing to educate women in closely associated schools—a variation on the later "separate but equal" standard of racially segregated schools followed in some parts of the US. Examples of this parallelism include(d) Radcliffe College at Harvard University in Massachusetts and Barnard College at Columbia University in New York. A variety of sex-segregated women's institutions were founded, most notably the prestigious Seven Sisters. Of the seven, one is now fully coeducational (Vassar College), while five others are not (e.g. Wellesley College, Smith College, Mt. Holyoke College, Bryn Mawr College, and Barnard College). In 1999, Radcliffe College was dissolved and nominal sex separation of undergraduates at Harvard ceased. All women undergraduates at Harvard University now receive diplomas from Harvard College. Other notable women's colleges that have become coeducational include Ohio Wesleyan Female College, Skidmore College and Sarah Lawrence College in New York state, Goucher College in Maryland, Connecticut College, and Stephens College in Missouri.

It should be noted that many or most "common schools"—the neighborhood, village and county schools that educated most Americans through the end of the 19th century—were coeducational from the beginning, in part because small school districts could not fund separate educational facilities for girls and boys.

Remarkably, after a little more than than a century in the mainstream higher education system of the United States, American women now earn the majority of bachelor's degrees and account for 60% of the enrolled undergraduate population. However, men still earn a majority of undergraduate degrees that lead to higher paying jobs (e.g. engineering) and a majority of graduate and professional degrees (e.g. PhDs and MDs).

U.S. institutions of higher education coeducational from establishment

Years U.S. educational institutions became coeducational

Schools that were previously all-female are listed in italics.
1860University of Wisconsin
1867DePauw University
Indiana University
1868University of Iowa Law School
1870University of Michigan
1877Ohio Wesleyan University
1882Florida State University
1883Bucknell University
1885University of Mississippi
1888George Washington University
Tulane University Pharamaceutical School
University of Kentucky
1892Auburn University
1893Macalester College
University of Connecticut
1894Boalt Hall
1895University of Pittsburgh
1897University of Buffalo Law School
University of North Carolina (graduate students)
1900University of Virginia (nursing only)
1902Miami University
1909Tulane University School of Dentistry
1914Tulane University Medical School
University of Pennsylvania Medical School
1918College of William and Mary
1920University of Virginia (graduate students)
1922Northeastern University, Boston School of Law
1931Seattle University
1942Wake Forest University
1946James Madison University (de facto)
1952Lincoln University
1953Georgia Tech
1953Harvard Law School
1963University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (all programs)
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
1964Texas A&M University
1966James Madison University (official)
1968Virginia Tech
1969Connecticut College
Franklin and Marshall College
Georgetown University
Kenyon College
Princeton University
Trinity College (Connecticut)
Vassar College
Yale University
1970Johns Hopkins University
University of Mary Washington
University of Virginia (all programs)
1972Davidson College
Radford University
Texas Woman's University
University of Notre Dame
Washington and Lee University Law School
1974United States Merchant Marine Academy
1976Claremont McKenna College
United States Air Force Academy
United States Coast Guard Academy
United States Military Academy
United States Naval Academy
1982Mississippi University for Women
1983Columbia College - Columbia University
1985Washington and Lee University
1991Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology
1993The Citadel
1997Virginia Military Institute
2001Notre Dame College
2002Hood College
2004Immaculata College
2005Lesley College of Lesley University
Wells College

Coeducation in Canada

Years Canadian educational institutions became coeducational

1884McGill University


Coeducation in China

The first coeducational institution of higher learnings in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute. It later renamed National Southeast University in 1921, National Central University in 1928 and Nanjing University in 1949. For thousands of years in China, education, especially higher education, was the privilege of men. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University, Peking Girl's Higher Normal School, but coeducation was still prohibited. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of coeducation, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students (《規定女子旁聽法案》) on the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal Institute hold on December 7th, 1919. He also proposed the university to recruit girl students. They were supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming and such famous professors Lu Zhiwei, Yang Xingfo, and were opposed by many famous men of the time. Finally, the meeting passed the law and decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal Institute (now Nanjing University) enrolled the earliest 8 coeducational Chinese women students in 1920. In the same year Peking University also began to allow women audit students. Since then, more and more Chinese university became coeducational. The most notable girl students of Nanjing University or of Chinese universities may be Chien-Shiung Wu.

In mainland China, there were many girl's schools and several women's colleges during the ROC. After 1949 since the CCP controlled mainland China, almost all schools and universities became coeducational in the PRC. In recent years new girl schools and women colleges again emerged.

External links

See also

pl:Koedukacja zh:男女同校

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