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Civil defense

From Academic Kids

The old United States Civil Defense logo, used today federally only as a historical reminder on 's seal, the triangle emphasises the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management.
The old United States Civil Defense logo, used today federally only as a historical reminder on FEMA's seal, the triangle emphasises the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management.

Civil defense is a non-military effort to defend civilian society from military attack. Like emergency operations, it has four basic tasks: mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery. In a civil defense context, these usually have different tasks.

Contents

Importance

Relatively small investments in preparation can speed up recovery by months or years and thereby prevent millions of deaths by hunger, cold and disease. According to human capital theory in economics, a country's population is more valuable than all of the land, factories and other assets that it possesses. People are what rebuilds a country after its destruction and it is therefore important for the economic security of a country to protect its people. Also, reducing fear and uncertainty via civil defense helps people's quality of life and has positive economic benefits. According to psychology, it is important for people to feel like they are in control of their own destiny and preparing for uncertainty via civil defense can help in this respect.

Threat Assessment

Some various threats to civilians and civilian life are nuclear, biological, chemical, information warfare (cyberattacks), etc. Each needs to be looked at and studied so that preventative measures can be built into civilian life.

Conventional

This would be conventional explosives. Blast sheltering against nuclear blast would pretty much protect against conventional explosives, but not vice versa.

Nuclear

The biggest threats from a nuclear attack are effects from blast, fires and radiation. There is also the possibility of terrorists employing a radioactive "dirty bomb."

Biological

The threat here is primarily from disease-causing microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.

Chemical

Various chemical agents are a threat such as nerve gas (VX, Sarin, mustard gas, etc.).

Information Warfare

Attacks to a country's information infrastructure are a threat and, since so many facets of modern life are tied into computers and information systems, such attacks could have financial and economic consequences.

Other

There are many other possible threats besides these.

Stages

Mitigation

Mitigation is the process of actively preventing the war or the release of nuclear weapons. It includes policy analysis, diplomacy, political measures, and more military responses such as a National Missile Defense and air defense artillery. In the case of counter-terrorism, mitigation would include intelligence gathering and direct action against terrorist groups. Mitigation may also be reflected in long-term planning such as the design of the interstate highway system and the placement of military bases further away from populated areas.

Preparation

Preparation consists of building blast shelters, and prepositioning information, supplies and emergency infrastructure. For example, most larger cities in the U.S. now have underground emergency operations centers that can perform civil defense coordination. FEMA also has many underground facilities located near major railheads such as the one in Denton, Texas and Mount Weather, West Virginia for the same purpose. Other measures would include continuous government inventories of grain silos, the National Strategic Medical Stockpile, the uncapping of the strategic petroleum reserve, the dispersal of truck-transportable bridges, water purification, mobile refineries, mobile decontamination facilities, mobile general and special purpose disaster mortuary facilities such as DMORT and DMORT-WMD, and other aids such as temporary housing to speed civil recovery.

On an individual scale, one means of preparation for exposure to nuclear fallout is to obtain potassium iodide (KI) tablets as a safety measure to protect the human thyroid gland from the uptake of dangerous radioactive iodine. Another measure is to cover the nose, mouth and eyes with a piece of cloth and sunglasses to protect against alpha particles, which are only an internal hazard.

Response

Response consists first of warning civilians so they can enter blast shelters and protect assets.

Staffing a response is always problematic in a civil defense emergency. After an attack, conventional full-time emergency services are dramatically overloaded, with conventional fire fighting response times often exceeding several days. Some capability is maintained by local and state agencies, and an emergency reserve is provided by specialized military units, especially civil affairs, Military Police, Judge Advocates and combat engineers.

However, the traditional response to massed attack on civilian population centers is to maintain a mass-trained force of volunteer emergency workers. Studies in World War II showed that lightly trained (40 hours or less) civilians in organized teams can perform up to 95% of emergency activities when trained, liaised and supported by local government. In this plan, the populace rescues itself from most situations, and provides information to a central office to prioritize professional emergency services.

In the 1990s, this concept was revived by the Los Angeles Fire Department to cope with civil emergencies such as earthquakes. The program was widely adopted, providing standard terms for organization. In the U.S., this is now official federal policy, and it is implemented by community emergency response teams, under the Department of Homeland Security, which certifies training programs by local governments, and registers "certified disaster service workers" who complete such training.

Recovery

Recovery consists of rebuilding damaged infrastructure, buildings and production. The recovery phase is the longest and ultimately most expensive phase. Once the immediate "crisis" has passed, cooperation fades away and recovery efforts are often politicized or seen as economic opportunities.

Preparation for recovery can be very helpful. If mitigating resources are dispersed before the attack, cascades of social failures can be prevented. For example, a crucial need after a general nuclear attack would be diesel fuel to transport every other item for recovery. One hedge against bridge damage in riverine cities is to subsidize a "tourist ferry" that performs scenic cruises on the river. When a bridge is down, the ferry takes up the load.

Implementation

Some advocates believe that government should change building codes to require autonomous buildings in order to reduce civil societies' dependence on complex, fragile networks of social services.

An example of a crucial need after a general nuclear attack would be transport fuel to transport every other item for recovery. However, oil refineries are large, immobile, and probable targets. One proposal is to preposition truck-mounted fuel refineries near oil fields and bulk storage depots. Other critical infrastructure needs would include road and bridge repair, communications, electric power, food production and potable water.

History

In the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as the Soviet Bloc, during the 1950s and 60s, many civil defence practices took place to prepare for the aftermath of a nuclear war, which seemed quite likely at that time. However, there was never strong civil defense policy because it fundamentally violates the Mutually Assured Destruction doctrine by making provisions for survivors. In the M.A.D. doctrine, there are not supposed to be any survivors for a civil defense system to assist (thus the acronym).

During the Cold War, civil defense was seen largely as defending against and recovering from an attack involving nuclear weapons. After the end of the Cold War, the focus moved from defense against nuclear war to defense against a terrorist attack possibly involving chemical or biological weapons. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the concept of civil defense has been revisited under the umbrella term of homeland security.


See also

Civilian-Based Defense, Nuclear war, Nuclear weapon, Blast shelter, Fallout shelter, Civil Defense Geiger Counters, survivalism, duck and cover and emergency preparedness, Weapons of Mass Destruction.

External links

  • http://www.civildefensemuseum.com A historical site with everything you ever wanted to know about Civil Defense, its tools, and methods, along with some excellent and rare images and photographs

fr:Scurit civile pt:Defesa civil ru:Гражданская оборона sv:Civilfrsvar

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