Advertisement

Champa

From Academic Kids

Missing image
ChampaMap.png
Rough location of Champa's core territories.

The kingdom of Champa (or Lin-yi in Chinese records) controlled what is now south and central Vietnam from approximately 192 through 1697. The empire began to decline in the late 15th century, became a Vietnamese vassal state in 1697, and was finally dissolved in 1832.

Contents

History

Champa was established by the rebellion of a local official named Kiu-lien against the Chinese authority in 192 in the region of present-day Hue. Champa included thereafter the modern provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan, and Binh Thuan. Initially closely tied to Chinese cultural and religious traditions, wars with neighboring Funan and the acquisition of Funanese territory in the fourth century saw the infusion of Indian culture into Cham society.
Missing image
ChamMuiNe.jpg
Thap Poshaknu Cham Towers, near Phan Thiet
The Cham language is part of the Austronesian family. Cham communities exist in contemporary Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand.

Champa was an important link in the Spice Route which stretched from the Persian Gulf to southern China. Despite the frequent wars between Champ and Cambodia the two countries also traded and cultural influences moved in both directions. The two royal families intermarried frequently. After 1692 many Chams, including members of the royal family and aristocracy took refuge in Cambodia and some were given hgh office. Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with Srivijaya and the Malay Archipelago.

Champa was a confederation of 4 (at times 5) principalities, each named after a historic region in India.

Cham history was characterised by repeated military conflict with the Chinese, the Khmer, the Vietnamese, and the Mongols. The Chams proved excellent warriors, using the mountains to great advantage.

More than a century of war between the Chams and the Khmers, during which each nation saw its capital repeatedly captured and looted, ended in 1203 when Jayavarman VIII occupied the country and made it a Khmer province, although the Chams regained their independence in 1220.

In 1471, the Chams suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the Vietnamese, suffering at least 60,000 dead and 30,000 taken into captivity and the destruction of their capital at Vijaya. The Vietnamese annexed the principalities of Amaravati and Vijaya. The 1471 disaster caused the first major Cham emigration, particularly to Cambodia and Malacca. In 1594 the Cham king sent forces to assist the Sultan of Johor's attack on Portuguese Malacca.

In 1692, the Cham king Po Rome of Panduranga, the remaining independent province, rebelled against the Nguyen Lords who ruled southern Vietnam. The revolt was unsuccessful and the aftermath was exacerbated by an outbreak of plague in Panduranga. Po Rome was related to the ruling house in the Sultanate of Kelantan. In 1796 Tuan Phiaow, a noble from Kelantan, headed a major revolt and claimed Kelantan's support. The Chams in Panduranga continued to resist total conquest until 1832, when the Vietnamese Emperor Ming Mang finally annexed the area.

After 1693, the Cham rulers were recognised as phien vuong (native king) in Panduranga by the Nguyen rulers of southern Vietnam, although they were closely supervised by Nguyen officials and had no authority over Vietnamese in their territory or the continuing influx of Vietnamese settlers. After an unsuccessful Cham revolt in 1786, King Chei Krei Brei (Cibri) and his court fled to Cambodia. The Nguyen continued the line of Cham rulers but downgraded their title to prefect and integrated them with the regular provincial administration.

The dominant religion of the Cham people was Hinduism and the culture was heavily influenced by India. However, nowadays, most are Muslims, like the Javanese in Indonesia who are Muslim but heavily influenced by Hinduism.

Many Cham towers still stand in central Vietnam. The most significant example of Cham architecture is My Son near the Vietnamese city of Hoi An. My Son, a large complex, was heavily damaged by US bombing during the Vietnam War. The site is currently being restored with donations from a number of countries and NGO's. As at 2004, there were still land mines and UXO's to be cleared.

The dynasties of Champa

Dynasty I

  • 192- ? Sri Mara
  • ?
  • ?
  • circa 270 Fan Hiong
  • circa 284-336 Fan Yi

Dynasty II

  • 336-349 Fan Wen
  • 349- ? Fan Fo
  • circa 377 Bhadravarman I
  • ? Gangaraja
  • ? Manorathavarman
  • d circa 420 Wen Ti

Dynasty III

  • circa 420-Fan
  • ? Fan
  • ? Fan
  • ? Fan
  • ? Fan
  • ? Fan
  • ? Fan
  • circa 510 Devavarman
  • circa 526/9 Vijayavarman

Dynasty IV

  • circa 529 ? Rudravarman I
  • circa 605 Sambuvarman
  • circa 629 ? Kanharpadharma
  • ? -645 Bhasadharma
  • 645- ? Bhadresvaravarman
  • (d. 653 ? (f)
  • 653- ? Vikrantavarman I
  • circa 685-c. 730 Vikrantavarman II
  • circa 749/58 Rudravarman II

Dynasty of Panduranga

  • circa 757 : Prithivndravarman
  • circa 774 : Satyavarman
  • circa 793 : Indravarman
  • circa 801 : Harivarman
  • circa 820-860 : Vikrantavarman III

Dynasty of Bhrigu

  • circa 877 : Indravarman II
  • circa 896-905 : Jayasimhavarman
  • 905-910 : Bhadravarman II
  • 911-vers 971 : Indravarman III
  • 989- ? : Vijaya Shr Harivarman II
  • circa 989 : Yanpuku Vijaya Shr

Dynasty of the South

  • 1041-1059 : Jayasimhavarman II
  • 1059-1060 ? : Bhadravarman III
  • circa 1060 : Rudravarman
  • circa 1081 : Jaya Indravarman IV
  • ? -1086 : Paramabodhisattva
  • 1086-1139 : Jaya Indravarman V
  • 1139-1147 : Jaya Indravarman VI
  • 1147-1163 : Jaya Harivarman VI
  • 1163- ? : Jaya Indravarman VII
  • ? - 1190 : Jaya Indravarman VIII
  • 1226- ? : Jaya Parameshvaravarman IV
  • ? - 1237 : Jaya Indravarman X
  • 1266- ? : Indravarman IX
  • ? - 1307 : Jayasimhavarman IV
  • 1307- ? : Mahendravarman
  • 1342-1360 : Bo-d
  • 1360-1390 : Che Bong-nga
  • 1441-1446 : Bichai
  • 1627 1651 Po Rome
  • 1660 1692 Po Saut

Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih, vassal Cham rulers under the Nguyen Lords

  • 1695 - 1728 Po Saktiraidaputih
  • 1728 - 1730 Po Ganvuhdaputih
  • 1731 - 1732 Po Thuttirai
  • 1732 - 1735 vacant
  • 1735 - 1763 Po Rattirai
  • 1763 - 1765 Po Tathundamohrai
  • 1765 - 1780 Po Tithuntiraidapaguh
  • 1780 - 1781 Po Tithuntiraidaparang
  • 1781 - 1783 vacant
  • 1783 - 1786 Chei Krei Brei
  • 1786 - 1793 Po Tithundaparang
  • 1793 - 1799 Po Lathundapaguh
  • 1799 - 1822 Po Chong Chan

See also

External References

fr:Royaume du Champ nl:Koninkrijk Champa ja:チャンパ王国 vi:Chăm pa zh:占婆

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools