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Caliber

From Academic Kids

The word caliber (American English) or calibre (British English) designates the interior diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod. It comes from the Italian calibro, itself from the Arabic qulib, meaning mould.

The term is most often used with respect to firearms, however, it also has currency in other fields.

Contents

Firearms

In firearms, the caliber is the diameter of the inside of the barrel. In a rifled barrel the distance is measured between the lands. The measurement is in inches and the caliber (abbreviated to cal) is quoted as a fraction (hundredths or thousandths) of an inch, so a 0.22 inch smallbore rifle is .22 cal.

Outside Great Britain and the U.S., the caliber of a weapon is commonly expressed in millimeters (mm). It is technically incorrect to say 9 mm cal. If referring to the inside diameter of a barrel, you should say 'the caliber is 9 mm'.

The caliber of a weapon is often informally used to describe certain common weapons. A .45 cal pistol is called a '45', a 9 mm semi-automatic pistol is called a '9 mil', a .380 caliber is called a '380', etc. This gives rise to the impression that "cal" is a unit of measurement, equal to 1/100 or 1/1000 of an inch, whereas it is rather a figure of speech.

For historical reasons, the name of a cartridge is not always the actual caliber. As one example, the common .38 Special revolver actually fires a bullet 0.357 inches in diameter.

Note that caliber alone is not a good indicator of the deadliness of a cartridge. Bullet weight and shape, powder capacity of the cartridge, and length of the barrel are some of the many variables which also have an effect.

Small arms range in bore size from approximately .177 cal up to .50 cal. Arms used to hunt big game may be as large as .700 caliber. In the middle of the 19th century, muskets and muzzle-loading rifles were .58 cal or larger.

Caliber as measurement of length

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Calibre_bore_length_gdl.png
Relationship of caliber in bore and length of gun

The length of the barrel (especially for larger guns) is often quoted in calibers. The effective length of the barrel (from breech to muzzle) is divided by the barrel diameter to give a value. As an example, the main guns of the Iowa class battleships can be referred to as 16"/50 caliber. They are 16 inches in diameter and the barrel is 800 inches long (16 * 50 = 800). This is also sometimes indicated using the prefix L/, so for example, the most common gun for the Panzer IV tank is described as a "75 mm L/48", meaning a barrel 75 mm in diameter, and 3600 mm long.

Alternative measurements of bore

Measurement of the bore of large weapons can be, and often was, expressed in pounds. A sphere of lead of the same diameter as the bore would have a certain weight. Lead is a useful material because it is malleable though unsuited for large projectiles because of its density.

This leads to certain guns being referred to as 6-pounder, 25-pounder, et cetera.

Other uses

In architecture, the caliber of a column is its diameter. In electricity, the caliber of an instrument of measure is the maximum value it can measure. In nautical parlance, the caliber of a chain is the diameter of the metal rod used to make each chain link. Agricultural produce is also often ranked by caliber (diameter), for instance olives, peas or eggs. In typography, the caliber of a font designates the size of the eye of a character, neglecting any risers or descenders.

See also

es:Calibre fr:Calibre gl:Calibre id:Kaliber it:Calibro (arma) ja:口径 nl:Kaliber pl:Kaliber pt:Calibre ru:Калибр sv:Kaliber

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