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Cajun

From Academic Kids

The Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. The word "Cajun" is a corruption of the French pronunciation of the word acadien, after Acadia, the name of their ancestral region in Nova Scotia; the name "Cajun" was applied to them by English-speaking colonists when they settled in Louisiana.

Cajuns
Total population: (1990 US census) 597,729
Significant populations in: Louisiana: 432,549

Eastern Texas: 56,000 (est.)
Other US states: 91,000 (est.)

LanguageCajun French, English.
ReligionPredominantly Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups

French
  Québécois
  Acadians
  Cajuns

Contents

History

The people who were to become the Cajuns were evicted from Nova Scotia in the period 1755 - 1763; this has become known as the Great Upheaval or Le Grand Dérangement. At the time there was a war going on in what is now Canada between France and Great Britain over the colony of New France, which is today Québec. This war is known in the United States as the French and Indian War, though elsewhere in the English-speaking world it is considered only one theater of the Seven Years War.

Originally French settlers, the Acadians found themselves under British rule at the conclusion of Queen Anne's War in 1713. When war flared up four decades later, they refused to swear allegiance to Britain, wanting nothing to do with the war and wishing to remain neutral. Fears remained among the British that the Acadians might join the French in the war, and the authorities of the colony expelled those Acadians who refused to swear allegiance. The British Crown would apologize for this act centuries later, in December 2003.

The Acadians were scattered throughout the eastern seaboard, the Caribbean, and Europe. Families were split onto different ships, with different destinations. Many ended up in French-colonized Louisiana, mainly in the south. Some families and individuals did travel north through the Louisiana territory to set up homes as far north as Wisconsin.

The Cajuns who settled in south Louisiana originally did so in the area just north of what is now New Orleans. Later, they were moved by the colonial government to southwest Louisiana, into the swamps and prairies shared with the Attakapas and Chitimacha Native American tribes. There they remained, almost in hiding until the early 1900's.

For the early part of the 20th century, attempts were made to supress Cajun culture by measures such as forbidding the use of French in schools. Attitudes changed after World War II, during which Cajuns often served as French interpreters for American forces in France. These experiences have helped change attitudes as the century progressed.

Geography

Most Cajuns call Acadiana home. The Louisiana Legislature's definition of the region includes the parishes of Avoyelles, Evangeline, St. Landry, Pointe Coupee, West Baton Rouge, Calcasieu, Jeff Davis, Acadia, Lafayette, St. Martin, Iberville, Ascension, St. James, St. John The Baptist, St. Charles, Cameron, Vermilion, Iberia, St. Mary, Assumption, Terrebonne, and Lafourche. (Louisiana House Concurrent Resolution No. 496)

Cities within the region include Lafayette, New Iberia, Houma, Opelousas, Lake Charles, Thibodaux, Eunice, St. Martinville, Donaldsonville, Crowley, and Breaux Bridge.

Over the years, many Cajuns have come to live in other parts of Louisiana, and in the "golden triangle" area of Texas (Orange, Beaumont, and Port Arthur) where they followed oil field jobs during the 1970s and 1980s, when the demand for petroleum related jobs declined, as major oil companies moved their businesses to Texas.

Culture

Language

See Main article Cajun French.

Cajun French (derived from Acadian French), although a dialect of the French language, differs in some areas of pronunciation, as well as in some areas of vocabulary, from Parisian or Metropolitan French. As of 2004, most of the older generations in Acadiana are bilingual, having grown up with French in the home and learning English in school.

As of 2004, in recent years the number of speakers of Cajun French has diminished considerably, however efforts are being made to reintroduce the language among the youngest generations. CODOFIL (the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana) was established during the late 1960s, and continues to teach a version of French somewhere between the older Cajun dialect and "Parisian" or "Metropolitan" French. Today, Cajun areas of Louisiana often form partnerships with Acadians in Canada who send French teachers to reteach the language in schools.

Some differences

  • The same pronoun is used for first person singular and plural; je parle in French is the same in Cajun, but nous parlons in French is je parlons (in Cajun).
  • [a] is pronounced with tongue towards the back of the buccal cavity.
  • [k],[t] is pronounced .
  • [d] pronounced , as in the word Acadian.
  • [wa] pronounced [we], similar to Québecois French.

Over the years, Cajun French speakers have sometimes incorporated English vocabulary (such as truck) directly into the language instead of adopting the neologisms of the Académie française. This can be disconcerting to non-natives.

Religion

Cajuns are predominantly Roman Catholic.

Arts

Music, including Zydeco

Cajun music is originally rooted in the music of the French-speaking Catholics of Canada, but not all Cajun music today is sung in the Cajun French Language (http://www.cajunradio.org/language.html). In earlier years the fiddle was the predominant instrument, but gradually the accordion has come to share the limelight. (The introduction of the accordion can be traced back to German settlers, who are more typically identified with east and central Texas. Though they were concentrated in Texas, many settled as far east as New Orleans, that path taking them directly through Acadiana.) There are many cajun musician practice jams (http://www.cajunradio.org/cajunjams.html) in Louisiana.

Some folks aver that Cajun music is always dance music -- with or without words. With Cajun music's heavy syncopation, it would be easy to make that claim. However, so much of the culture is expressed in the lyrics that one cannot separate them from the music. Whatever one might say about it, Cajun music was created for a party: either a small get-together on the front porch or a foot-stomping crowd intent on having a good time. Cajun and Zydeco have influenced American popular music for many years, especially country music. Cajun sounds embellish recordings by Alan Jackson, Hank Williams, Sr. and Jr., Doug Kershaw, Sammy Kershaw (cousins from the area), Gundula Krause and countless others.

The Cajun dance is usually a two-step or a waltz, while Zydeco, further described below, is a syncopated two-step or jitterbug. A Cajun dancer will cover the dance floor while the Zydeco dancer will do all his dancing in one spot. Cajun music artists include DL Menard, Dewey Balfa, Belton Richard, Blind Uncle Gaspard and Harry Choates. The younger generation includes Balfa Toujours, Steve Riley and the Mamou Playboys, and the all-teen groupe La Bande Feufollet.

Important Cajun musicians by decade include the following:

1920s–30s: Joseph Falcon and Cleoma Breaux; Leo Soileau and Mayeuse Lafleur or Moise Robin; Wayne Perry; Amedee Ardoin; Dennis McGee and Sady Courville; Angelas LeJeune; Breaux Brothers; Hackberry Ramblers; Rayne Bo Ramblers; J.B. Fusilier; Lawrence Walker

1940s–50s: Harry Choates; Happy Fats; Iry LeJeune; Nathan Abshire; Lawrence Walker; Aldus Roger and the Lafayette Playboys; Lionel Cormier and the Sundown Playboys; Lee Sonnier and the Cajun All Stars; Chuck Guillory

1950s–60s: Austin Pitre and Milton Molitor; Badeaux and the Louisiana Aces; Adam Hebert and the Country Playboys; Alphee Bergeron, Shirley Bergeron and the Country Playboys; Nathan Abshire and the Pinegrove Boys; Robert Bertrand; Sidney Brown and the Traveler Playboys; Doris Matte; Joe Bonsall and the Orange Playboys; Belton Richard and the Musical Aces

1970s: Balfa Brothers; Octa Clark and Hector Duhon; Bois Sec Ardoin and Canray Fontenot; Touchet Brothers; Camey Doucet

In the early 1950s, Zydeco gradually developed from the music of the Creoles in southwest and south central Louisiana. At an earlier period, Creole and Cajun music were quite similar, but after World War II, Creole music took off into another direction, incorporating elements of the blues and rock and roll. The accordion replaced the fiddle and electric instruments, drums, and corrugated metal washboard (called a frottoir) were added. Zydeco artists include Buckwheat Zydeco, Beau Jocques, Clifton Chenier, and Rockin' Sidney.

Swamp Pop, another music genre from Acadiana, came about in the mid 1950's. With the Cajun dance and musical conventions in mind, nationally popular rock, pop, country, and R&B songs were re-recorded, sometimes in French. Several Swamp Pop songs have started as a local Louisiana record which performed well on the national record charts. One producer of early Swamp Pop, Huey Meaux, is a legendary figure in the history of rock and roll. Artists include Zachary Richard, Dale & Grace, Tommy McLain, Warren Storm, and Rod Bernard.

See also: Iko Iko

Painting and sculpture

A few local artists have gained international recognition for their unique visions.

George Rodrigue of Lafayette has taken his vision of the Blue Dog from a studio in Lafayette, Louisiana to the White House and galleries around the world. Rodrigue is also the owner of a local restaurant.

Floyd Sonnier of Scott, Louisiana drew upon his technique called "traditional realism" to render pieces that highlighted the history of the area and people. His subjects were usually rustic; farmers, tools, trees, nature, and old homes. He graduated from what is now the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and also worked as a commercial artist.

Susan Nugent Clark is based in New Iberia. She paints and draws using a variety of mediums, focusing on Louisiana subjects and recreating old photos. Her art has been displayed across the US.

Pat Duet is a Raceland, Louisiana artist. Her main claim to fame is the "Cypress Santa" she carves from the "knees" of cypress trees. She has been featured in national exhibits and television appearances.

Literature

Though many stories were passed down from generation to generation verbally, some were written down for posterity. Some were written down by non-Cajuns. Some are simply made up children's stories to reconnect the newest generations with their culture and past.

The Henry Wadsworth Longfellow version of the Acadian Upheaval, "Evangeline" is probably the best known telling of the story. Historians will argue about Longfellow's accuracy, but it is the most visible and best known account of the time available. The fictionalized heroine of the poem is honored with a statue and historical recreation near St. Martinville, Louisiana.

Mary Alice Fontenot wrote children's stories featuring characters that Cajun children could find in their back yard. "Clovis the Crawfish" (her most enduring character), went on adventures with his friends "Paillasse Poule D'Eau", "Christophe Cricket", and "Petit Papillon", among others. She also wrote numerous newspaper articles, historical pieces, and other books for adults as well as children.

Jude Roy writes short stories about Cajun life, past and present. Roy's stories have been published in The Southern Review and other compilations, and have been read on National Public Radio.

Nola Mae Ross writes stories and books primarily about the southwestern Louisiana parishes of Calcasieu and Cameron. These include historical accounts of Hurricane Audrey and the infamous Jean Lafitte.

Food

See Main article Cajun cuisine.

To paraphrase an old saying, Cajuns live to eat. Outside Louisiana the distinctions between Cajun and Louisiana Creole cuisine have been blurred. However, Creole dishes tend to be more continental, although using local produce. Cajun victuals are more spicy hot and tend to be more hearty. But outside Louisiana the distinctions are academic.

The cornerstone of Cajun cuisine is "the trinity": onion, celery, and bell pepper, finely diced. This is similar to the use of the mire poix in traditional French cooking, which is finely diced onion, celery, and carrot. With this base, flavors are layered and concentrated. Inexpensive and readily available ingredients, seasoned and served over plain white rice, provided the fuel that early Cajun settlers needed for survival. Many such dishes are still served in homes and restaurants today.

High on the list of favorites of Cajun cooking are the stews called gumbos, a word brought to Louisiana from Africa. The word originally meant "okra", which is one of the principal ingredients of a gumbo, used as a thickening agent. The word came into Caribbean Spanish as "guingambó", which is now the word for okra in Puerto Rico. A filé gumbo is thickened with sassafras leaves, a practice borrowed from the Choctaw Indians. The backbone of a gumbo is the roux which is flour toasted until nearly burnt, made with fat or oil, not butter as with the French. The classic gumbo is made with chicken and the Cajun sausage called andouille, but the ingredients all depend on what's available at the moment.

Another Cajun classic is the variety of jambalayas that is available at any time. The only certain thing that can be said about them is that they contain rice and almost anything else. Usually, however, you'll find green peppers, onions, celery and hot peppers. Anything else is optional.

Boudin is a type of sausage made from a pork rice dressing wrapped in pork skin. It is available by the link from butcher shops or stores. The sausage wrap can be chewed but the stuffing is usually squeezed out of one end. Saltine crackers are a popular accessory.

Rice proved to be a valuable commodity in early Acadiana. With an abundance of water, rice could be grown practically anywhere in the region, and grew wild in some areas. Rice became the predominant starch in the diet. Easy to grow, prepare, and digest, the survival of the Acadians depended on it.

The food of the Cajuns had to meet certain requirements. Many households consisted of 8-12 people, so farming was a requirement, regardless of the head of household's other vocations. Whoever did the cooking had to prepare food for a lot of hard working people everyday. Rice became the easiest, cheapest, and tastiest way to do that. Cajun cuisine grew up around the ability to stretch what little meat, game, or other protein they had.

And, of course, to sop up the juices what would a meal be without cornbread? The corn pone one hears about in the South is derived from an Algonquian dish made with corn (maize) flour, salt and water. Wheat and flour was hard to find in many areas, and did not last long in the south Louisiana humidity. This made the cornbread a necessity.

In most cases, whatever is found on a Cajun table is what a Cajun found in the field or water a short time before and a short distance away, like crawfish or gator or rabbit or chicken. The cuisine is simple, lively, hearty and plentiful. It is representative of the early farmers and trappers who supplied most of the food for the Cajun people.

Celebrations

Many people in Cajun Country are prone to have a party "at the drop of a hat". Any get-together at home with a few friends, night on the town with a larger group, or a full blown festival involving thousands of people is greeted with enthusiasm. Nearly every village, town, and city of any size has a yearly festival, celebrating an important part of the local economy. Clarence's info on Louisiana Festivals (http://www.cajunradio.org/louisianafestivals.html) lists most of the major festivals. Examples are the Duck Festival in Gueydan, The Rice Festival in Crowley, the Sugarcane festival in New Iberia, and the Zydeco Festival in Opelousas. The Crawfish Festival in Breaux Bridge and Festival International in Lafayette are two of the most popular festivals, and attract visitors from around the world. Smaller local festivals are very popular, and are produced with great fanfare. The majority of festivals include a fais-do-do or street dance, usually to a live local band. Crowds at these festivals can range from a few hundred to over 100,000.

Outside Louisiana, a major Cajun/Zydeco festival was held annually in Rhode Island, which does not have a sizable Cajun population but is home to many Franco-Americans of Québecois and Acadian descent. It featured Cajun culture and food, as well as authentic Louisiana musical acts both famous and unknown, drawing attendance not only from the strong Cajun/Zydeco music scene in Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York City, but from all over the world. In recent years the festival became so popular that there are now several such large summer festivals near the Connecticut-Rhode Island border: The Great Connecticut Cajun and Zydeco Music & Arts Festival, (http://www.sunriseresort.com/cajun2004.html) The Blast From The Bayou Cajun and Zydeco Festival, (http://www.strawberrypark.net/cajun_zydeco_schedule.html) and the Rhythm & Roots Festival (http://www.rhythmandroots.com/).

Mardi Gras underscores the Cajun belief system. The Catholic church figures heavily in planning almost everything and many of the traditions of Acadiana are based on the church calendar. Ash Wednesday marks the beginning of Lent in the Catholic church, a 40 day period of fasting and reflection which ends Easter Sunday. So Mardi Gras is the last chance to have a huge party.

The traditional "fat Tuesday" celebration in the rural areas of Acadiana is nothing like the debauchery and craziness that typifies New Orleans and other metropolitan celebrations. It centers around the courir (translated: run). A group of people, usually on horseback, will approach a farmhouse and ask for something for the community gumbo pot. Often, the farmer or his wife will allow the riders to have a chicken, if they can catch it. The group then puts on a show, comically attempting to catch the chicken set out in a large open area. Songs are sung, jokes are told, and little skits are acted out. When and if the chicken is caught, it is duly added to the pot at the end of the day.

Institutions

Classification

The Cajuns as a distinct ethnic group

It is relatively uncontroversial to consider the Cajuns a distinct ethnic group. The distinction between the Cajuns and other people in and around Louisiana is generally agreed to by both the Cajuns themselves and others. Their descent from displaced Acadians, their retention in significant measure of a unique form of the French language, and numerous distinct cultural customs distinguish them as an ethnic group. Many (though by no means all) Cajuns live in communities relatively separate from other Louisianans.

As with most other contemporary Americans, many Cajuns are assimilated into the wider society and live more in a contemporary American culture than in a distinctly Cajun culture. As with most contemporary Americans of European ancestry, individual Cajuns are generally free either to embrace their specific ethnic identity or to be seen as undifferentiated "white Americans."

See also

Cajun (rocket)

Cajun is the name of an American sounding rocket. The first Cajun was launched on June 20th, 1956.

Sources

eo:Kaĵunoj fr:Cajun nl:Cajun ja:ケイジャン

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