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Braveheart

From Academic Kids

Template:Infobox Movie

Braveheart is an American motion picture released in 1995 that was very loosely based on the life of William Wallace, a major Scottish hero. Mel Gibson played Wallace and also directed the film.

The film won numerous awards including the 1995 Academy Award for:

Nominated:


Contents

Cast

Historical Relevance

Braveheart is a work of fiction which draws inspiration from real historical events. However, due to the intense level of detail in costuming, makeup and special effects, audiences may incorrectly assume that the production is intended to be historically accurate. Some of the "inaccuracies" in Braveheart may be motivated by artistic reasons. The anachronistic kilts and blue makeup worn by the Scots make the rebels more visually distinctive, the incomplete armor and missing helmets allow viewers to recognize the actors, and changes to characters and names make the story easier to follow. Modifications to the sequence of events create dramatic juxtapositions, allowing different lines in the story to appear to occur simultaneously. Some noted critiques include:

  1. Braveheart's plot includes an affair between William Wallace and the character Princess Isabelle, based upon Isabella of France. The film implies she is pregnant at the time of Wallace's execution, possibly carrying the future Edward III of England. Historically, the real Isabella was only a child still living in France at this time, and furthermore, was never a Princess of Wales. (Note this idea may derive from the play The Wallace by Sydney Goodsir Smith.)
  2. Gibson was critiqued for his portrayal of Isabella's future husband, Edward II of England. Although most historians agree that Edward was a homosexual, many complained that the film presented demeaning stereotypes toward Edward.
  3. The Battle of Stirling Bridge, the first skirmish in the film, was filmed without a bridge. The actual conflict was more of an ambush of the English as they attempted to cross a river. (It is rumoured that Gibson told a Scottish local the bridge was removed as it got in the way, and the local replied "that's what the English found" [1] (http://www.fanaticus.org/DBA/battles/stirlingbraveheart.html).) The film also makes no mention of Andrew de Moray, Wallace's companion-in-arms and a major contributor at this battle. Curiously, the fight shown in the film is more like the Battle of Bannockburn 17 years later, with English cavalry charging Scottish schiltrons and being repulsed.
  4. Edward I's second wife, Margaret, whom he married in 1299 is absent from the film, although the span of history covered in the production includes this year. This implies his first wife Eleanor of Castile was his only spouse.
  5. The film shows Irish conscripts switching sides and joining Wallace's forces at the Battle of Falkirk. The Irish forces were hired mercenaries who, from all accounts, fought well for Edward I. The Celtic soldiers who did display some rebellious tendencies were the Welsh, who had been conquered about a decade earlier. Edward I intended to use them as the first wave of attack and ssentially as schiltron fodder. They did not take kindly to such intentions, even if they did not actually switch sides.
  6. The film implies that Wallace's rebellion took place against a background of a fairly lengthy English occupation of Scotland. Actually they had only invaded Scotland the year before (1296) and the mass hanging of Scottish nobles which Wallace witnessed as a boy never happened.
  7. Near the end, the film implies that Bannockburn was a spontaneous battle. In fact, Bruce had already been fighting a guerrilla campaign against the English for 8 years.
  8. The sword carried by Gibson is a 16th century Scottish claymore. A sword which is claimed to have belonged to Wallace (although this is disputed) exists in Scotland, it is significantly simpler.
  9. There is some controversy about the jus prima noctis (also known as the droit de seigneur), the supposed right of a Lord to deflower virgins in his territory, but it certainly did not exist in either England or Scotland during this period.
  10. Wallace is reputed to have had a wife named Marian Braidfoot (apparently her name was changed to Murron in the film so audiences would not confuse her with Maid Marian from the Robin Hood stories). She was indeed supposedly killed by the English sheriff of Lanark in May 1297, although it appears this was a reprisal by the English since Wallace was already revolting against them.
  11. Wallace's long-standing hatred for the English may not have been because of his wife's death, according to one legend it was because two English soldiers challenged Wallace over some fish he had caught. The argument escalated into a fight, resulting in Wallace killing the soldiers.
  12. The then-future King Robert the Bruce is described as "Earl of Bruce", but actually, his title before becoming king was Earl of Carrick.
  13. Braveheart suggests Wallace supported the Bruce claim to the Scottish throne; however, Wallace supported the Balliol claim while Bruce was convinced of his father's rightful succession.
  14. The reality of William Wallace's capture and execution was far worse than shown in the film.
  15. The movie depicts Robert the Bruce's father (who also had the same name) as a leper. There is no historical record of this though Bruce himself contracted a disease before his death that has sometimes been alleged to be leprosy.
  16. Bruce did not betray Wallace at Falkirk. He did eventually switch sides but that was a few years later and as a result of a dispute with the Comyns (not depicted in the film) who supported the Balliol claim to the throne. The Scottish war effort collapsed a few years later because of the defeat of their French allies by the Flemish at Coutrai in 1304. Wallace was hunted down when the Scots were forced to surrender in 1305.
  17. In his speech before the battle of Stirling Bridge, Mel Gibson's Wallace alludes to a 100 years of tyranny. Ironically the 13th century was one of the few centuries when Anglo-Scottish relations were relatively peaceful. This changed after the unexpected death of Alexander III in 1288 and when Edward I who was asked to resolve the dispute to the Scottish crown used it to revive English claims of overlordship.

For a historical treatment of events see the William Wallace entry.

Miscellaneous

In 1997 a statue of Gibson as "William Wallace" was placed in the car-park of the Wallace Monument near Stirling, Scotland. The statue, which includes the word "Braveheart" on Wallace's shield, was the cause of much controversy and one local resident stated that it was wrong to "desecrate the main memorial to Wallace with a lump of crap". In 1998 the statue was vandalised by someone who smashed the face in with a hammer. After repairs were made, the statue was encased in a cage at night to prevent further vandalism. This has only incited more calls for the statue to be removed as it now appears that the Gibson/Wallace figure is imprisoned; an irony, considering that the statue bears the word "Freedom" on the plinth.
Missing image
Braveheart-1.JPG
Wallace/Gibson Statue in Stirling, Scotland

External links

de:Braveheart es:Braveheart fr:Braveheart he:לב אמיץ ja:ブレイブハート no:Braveheart sv:Braveheart

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