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Barbie

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Barbie is the world's best-selling doll and was first sold on March 9, 1959. The best-selling Barbie was one released in 1992, Totally Hair Barbie, with stylable hair so long it reached from her head down to her toes.

Contents

Development

Ruth Handler had noted that her daughter Barbara preferred playing with paper dolls that looked like adults rather than like children. During a trip to Europe with her daughter, Handler noticed a German doll named Lilli and bought it for Barbara.

In fact, the Lilli doll was based on the character of a prostitute in a comic strip drawn by Reinhard Beuthin for die Bild Zeitung. The Lilli doll was first sold in Germany in 1955. The dolls were manufactured in Hamburg, where legal, licensed prostitutes are ubiquitous. The doll was marketed to adult men in bars and tobacco shops, not to children. M. G. Lord, in her Forever Barbie: The Unauthorized Biography of a Real Doll, characterized the original doll as a "gag gift for men, a pornographic character." [1] (http://www.salon.com/mwt/feature/1997/11/26harlot.html)

Ruth Handler says that when she bought Lilli for her daughter, she was ignorant of its adult nature. Ruth Handler and Elliott Handler, the co-founders of Mattel, bought the rights to market Lilli: with a hair color change from blonde to brunette, and a name change to Barbie (after Ruth's daughter Barbara) she was sold in the United States starting in 1959 at New York's annual Toy Fair.

The first Barbie doll had a black-and-white striped swimsuit and signature ponytail. In the succeeding years, Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson based Barbie doll fashion designs on the Paris fashions.

Ruth Handler had stated that she thought it "was important to a girl's esteem that she play with a doll with breasts," and Barbie was certainly qualified to be that doll. If the doll originally marketed were human-sized, her measurements would have been 39 by 18 by 33 in. These measurements were not based on actual human metrics, and the unrealistic size of Barbie has been controversial, with many suggesting that playing with Barbie decreases rather than enhances a girl's self-esteem. In response to criticism, Mattel adjusted the chest measurement down, and the waist measurement up, though the proportions are still uncharacteristic of most women.

Redesigned by Jack Ryan and manufactured by Mattel, this one doll is a $1.9 billion dollar a year industry, with two Barbies being bought every second.

Biography of Barbara Millicent Roberts

Barbie's fictional biography has developed as her sales continued. She has been given the fuller name Barbara Millicent Roberts, and a family and friends have been manufactured for her, starting with her permanent beau Ken. Additions to the family tree include Skipper (debut 1964), twins Tutti and Todd (1966), Stacie (1992), Kelly (1995), and baby Krissy (1999). Barbie has dated Ken since 1961, and after a long estrangement was reunited with her best friend Midge in the early nineties. Other longstanding friends in Barbie's ethnically diverse social circle include Hispanic Teresa, African-American Christie and Steven (Christie's boyfriend), and the ethnically-ambiguous Kayla.

Barbie has been said to attend Willows High School in Willows, Wisconsin and Manhattan International High School in New York City (based on the real-life Stuyvesant High School).

Barbie has thirty-eight recorded pets, including cats and dogs, horses, a panda, a lion cub, and a zebra. Barbie has used her driver's license to the fullest, with pink convertibles, trailers and more. She also has a pilot's license, and operates commercial airliners, when not serving as a stewardess.

Barbie and Ken's break-up

On February 12, 2004, just days before Valentine's, Mattel spokespeople announced the split of Barbie and Ken after 43 years of dating, saying in their press release that they "have decided to spend some time apart."

"Barbie and Ken have always been an extraordinary couple with so much on- and off-screen chemistry," said the pair's business manager, Russell Arons, Vice President Marketing, Mattel. "In fact, they just finished wrapping their fourth movie together, 'Barbie™ as The Princess and the Pauper,' which debuts this fall. And now they feel it's time to spend some quality time – apart."

A Mattel press release ended saying "Although their future is yet to be set in "cement," one thing is for certain - Barbie and Ken will always remain the best of friends."

2004 campaign for presidency

On August 12, 2004, Barbie announced she was running for the presidential office, as a member of the Party of Girls. According to a Mattel press release:

"In preparation for hitting the campaign trail, Barbie consulted thousands of loyal constituents through Barbie.com to help finalize a platform that includes three primary issues relevant to girls - create world peace, help the homeless and poor, and take care of animals. Barbie encourages girls to log onto Barbie.com to learn more about the Barbie for President campaign and to speak up on what is important to them. Barbie is partnering with The White House Project, a national nonpartisan organization devoted to advancing women's leadership, and has entered into an exclusive partnership with Toys "R" Us.
"Barbie is the ultimate ambassador for girls and this bid for the presidency reinforces the idea that it is never too soon to get involved and have your voice heard," says Russell Arons, Vice President Marketing, Mattel. "Barbie has extensive background and experience that makes for an ideal candidate - including serving in the military, acting as a UNICEF ambassador and being a teacher; obviously, being well-educated, well-rounded and motivated is a huge plus.
"Barbie for President shows girls that they can aspire to the highest levels of leadership, including the presidency. It allows girls to think about turning Barbie's dream house into the White House," says Marie C. Wilson, president and founder of The White House Project, which recently launched its "Go Vote. Go Run. Go Lead. Go Girl." campaign. "Since Barbie is such a large part of girls' lives, we believe it's important to encourage them to become tomorrow's leaders, and Barbie for President sends that message."

Cultural effect

Barbie has been used in an effort to promote gender equality, showing that women can work at anything. Career woman Barbie has taken up many occupations over the years, they include:

Many designers have been honored with the opportunity to design clothing for Barbie. Included in the list of accomplished creators and labels are Calvin Klein, Donna Karan, Bob Mackie, Nicole Miller, Christian Dior, Escada, Anne Klein, Ralph Lauren, Donatella Versace and Bill Blass. She has also been portrayed as a tourist at Walt Disney World and a customer at McDonalds.

Controversies

Barbie is often looked upon as an icon of Western childhood. Her popularity ensures that her effect on the play of Western children attracts a high degree of scrutiny. The criticisms leveled at her are often based around the idea of children considering Barbie a role model and attempting to emulate her.

The Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia outlawed Barbie dolls on September 10, 2003.

"Barbie" is sometimes used as a derogatory slang term for a person, particularly a girl or woman, who is stupid. See bimbo.

Physical characteristics

Barbie's height and exaggerated hourglass figure drew criticism from parents and anorexia groups. If scaled into real life proportions, she would be 5 feet, 9 inches, (1.75 m) measuring 36-18-33. According to research by the University Central Hospital in Helsinki, Finland, she would lack the requisite 17 to 22 percent of body fat required to menstruate. [2] (http://site.www.umb.edu/forum/1/AMSTJess/member/Forums/481613252.html) The chances of meeting someone with Barbie's measurements is 1 in 100,000.

Stereotyping

The enormous range of available accessories relating clothes, hair, make-up, parties and looking pretty give rise to the accusation that Barbie encourages young girls to focus on shallow trivia. Her accessories reflect a lifestyle that is unobtainable for most of the girls who play with her.

This culminated in 1993 when Mattel released "Teen Talk Barbie", a talking version of the doll. It spoke a number of phrases such as, "Will we ever have enough clothes?" "I love shopping!" and, "Wanna have a pizza party?" Each doll was programmed to say four out of 270 possible phrases, so chances were good that no two dolls owned by a girl or her friends would be the same. One of these 270 phrases was "Math class is tough!" Although only about 1.5% of all the dolls sold said the phrase, it caused a large public outcry over Barbie's representation of women, and the infamous phrase quickly became a common pop culture reference.

A group of parents, feminists and other activists known as the Barbie Liberation Organization bought hundreds of Barbies and GI Joe dolls, and switched their voice circuitry. This resulted in the new modified Barbie saying, "Eat lead, Cobra!" and "Dead men tell no lies." [3] (http://www.etext.org/Zines/UnitCircle/uc3/page10.html)

Responses

One of the most publicized responses happened around the turn of the century, as Barbie's waist widened to more natural proportions. Barbies of different nationalities have also been created, including African, Hispanic, Asian and Native American Barbies. Most commonly the Hispanic Teresa and African-American Christie appear as Barbie's "ethno-friend" alongside Skipper and occasionally red-head Midge, who's been around since the sixties.

Mattel also released an "International collection" in 1980, with Barbies from different parts of the world. The dolls are dressed in more or less traditional clothes, each representing a nation. The European countries are highly over-represented but there are also i.e. Peruvian, Kenyan, Japanese and Australian Barbies. In 2001 "The Princess Collection" was issued for instance with dolls named Princess of India, Princess of the Navajo, Princess of the Vikings. As of 2005 there are also a "Kelly; Dolls of the World" where Barbies "little sister" and two friends represent different European countries.

To counter accusations of gender stereotyping, career Barbies have been released. These include astronaut, gymnast, rapper and soldier. She also ran for President after breaking up with Ken. [4] (http://www.adiosbarbie.com/bology/bology_timeline.html)

Parodies and lawsuits

Many artists have referred to Barbie and her accompanying products, either as homage or as parody. The European pop-dance group Aqua released a song called "Barbie Girl" in 1997. It contained lyrics such as "You can brush my hair/Undress me everywhere" and used a graphics similar to the pink Barbie logo. Mattel used this as grounds for a trademark infringement and defamation lawsuit filed on September 11 1997. However, it was dismissed by the court as parody on May 15 1998.

A commercial by automobile company Nissan featuring dolls similar to Barbie and Ken driving in a toy car was the subject of another lawsuit on September 18 1997 [5] (http://www.eonline.com/News/Court/0997.barbie.html).

Collecting

Mattel estimates that there are well over 100,000 avid Barbie collectors. Ninety-percent are women, at an average age of 40, purchasing more than 20 Barbie dolls each year. Forty-five-percent of them spend upwards of $1000 a year.

Related merchandise

The mid-1990s saw a line of early novels, featuring her adventurous exploits. By the late-1990s, Mattel had moved to featuring her in interactive 3D video games for both gaming consoles and personal computers. In recent years, she has taken the computer animated movie industry by storm, guest appearing in Toy Story 2, and later her own direct-to-video movies, Barbie's Nutcracker, The Princess and the Pauper and Rapunzel Barbie, all of which were accompanied by small product lines, including dolls of Barbie in the costumes portrayed in the shorts. Though not feature length, they are fairly abundant in plot, for the younger audience, of course.

Terminology

Collector Edition - Dolls produced in limited quantities. Designed for collectors and display. Usually they come in showcase packaging [a stand and a Certificate of Authenticity].

Customized - Dolls created exclusively for a specific store. Usually they come in showcase packaging [a stand and a Certificate of Authenticity].

Limited Edition - Dolls produced in limited quantities worldwide. Limited to specific retailers. Featuring special fabrics and details. Designed for collectors and display. They come in showcase packaging [a stand and a Certificate of Authenticity included].

Modern Barbie - Dolls produced after 1972.

OSS - Dolls with original swimsuit.

Ponytail - This denotes the age and type of Barbie a particular doll is. There are five types:

#1 - 1959; original; white irises; blue liner; feet holes; body aging whitens material.
#2 - 1959; white irises; blue liner; body aging whitens material.
#3 - 1960; blue irises; softer curved eyebrows.
#4 - 1960; body vinyl retain color.
#5 - 1961; hair texture new; lighter in weight; hollow body.

Timeless Treasures™ - Celebrity or character dolls.

Twist 'N Turn Waist - A movable waist of mid-1960s and later Barbie doll [or a variation].

Vintage Barbie - All dolls produced before 1972.

Timeline

1958: Ruth Handler develops the idea of Barbie.
1959: Barbie debuts. The vintage era of Barbie begins.
1960: Barbie dolls number 3 and 4 are released.
1961: Number 5 is released featuring different hair colors. Enchanted Evening debuts. Barbie boyfriend Ken debuts.
1963: Fashion Queen Barbie debuts with three interchangeable wigs. Barbie soon-to-be best friend, Midge, is introduced.
1964: Barbie is marketed in a pink swimsuit. Barbie doll eyes open and close. Skipper, Barbie's little sister, is introduced.
1965: Barbie "American Girl" is introduced. Fashions inspired by the First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy are marketed. More lifelike with legs that bend. Miss Astronaut is introduced.
1966: Color Magic Barbie debuts. Lunch on the Terrace, Pretty as a Picture, and Shimmering Magic are marketed. Barbie’s cousin Francie introduced. Barbie’s little sister and brother, twins Tutti and Todd, debuts.
1967: Twist ‘N Turn Barbie is introduced. Fashion Shiner and Braniff Boarding Outfit are marketed.
1968: Barbie speaks for the first time (English and Spanish). Six different phrases are said, including "I have a date tonight", "I love being a fashion model", and "Let's have a costume party."
1969: Ken is reintroduced with muscles and a new head, knees that bend, and the ability to speak.
1970: Living Barbie is introduced. She has elbows, knees, and ankles that bend. Her head, waist, arms, hands, and legs swivel.
1971: Malibu Barbie debuts. Growin’ Pretty Hair Barbie debuts. Barbie doll's demure side-glancing eyes now look straight ahead.
1972: This is the year that the modern era of Barbie begins. Walk-Lively Barbie and Talking Busy Barbie are introduced. Talking Busy Barbie can communicate. Talking Busy Barbie has rotating wrists and hands can hold accessories.
1973: Quick Curl Barbie is introduced. Ken doll's hair comes with straight or curly hair and a removable beard, sideburns and two moustaches.
1974: Barbie turns sixteen. A section of Times Square in New York City is renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week.
1975: Barbie Olympic skier, gymnast and skater are marketed poseable with a "gold" medal. Barbie Get-Ups 'N Go new careers as a doctor, surgical nurse, ballerina and a flight attendant. Barbie Dream Boat is introduced.
1976: Ballerina Barbie debuts. Barbie of the Century for the bicentennial celebration is dressed in a red, white, and blue dress. Her red skirt is decorated with the American flag. A line of revolutionary soldiers in uniform are also supplied.
1977: SuperStar Barbie is introduced. Eighteen inches (457 mm) tall Super Size Barbie debuts.
1978: SuperStar Barbie gets the SuperStar Stage Show. Fashion Photo Barbie has photo shoots posing on a modeling stand.
1979: Pretty Changes Barbie debuts.
1980: Black Barbie, Hispanic Barbie, and the International Collection are marketed. The International Collection initially including Italian Barbie, Parisian Barbie, and Royal U.K. Barbie. The first Barbie doll convention is held.
1981: Western Barbie doll goes country with Westward Ho and Classic Cowgirl. Dallas, her palomino horse, debuts.
1982: Pink & Pretty Barbie debuts. Black Magic Curl Barbie debuts. Eskimo Barbie and India Barbie are added to the International Collection.
1983: Twirly Curls Barbieis marketed. Dream Date Barbie dates Ken. Angel Face Barbie has her own makeup line. Swedish Barbie and Spanish Barbie are added to the International Collection.
1984: Barbie doll's 25th Anniversary. Barbie & Ken Day is declared by New York Mayor Ed Koch. Tiffany's creates a sterling silver Barbie doll. The International Collection becomes the Dolls of the World Collection. Swiss Barbie and Irish Barbie are introduced.
1985: Day-to-Night Barbie debuts. Andy Warhol releases his Barbie painting. Barbie doll exhibition finishes its travels from France and nine U.S. cities.
1986: Barbie joins a band, The Rockers. Dream Glow Fashions that glow in the dark is marketed. Blue Rhapsody Barbie is introduced. It is the first Limited Edition collector Barbie doll. It is the first porcelain doll. Astronaut Barbie travels to space. Peruvian Barbie and Greek Barbie debut.
1987: Barbie's wild Concert Tour fashions take a cue from pop star Madonna. The World Collection adds Icelandic Barbie and German Barbie.
1988: The Happy Holidays Series debuts. Benefit Performance 1967 Barbie is added to the Limited Edition porcelain dolls. Mardis Gras Barbie debuts. Canadian Barbie and Korean Barbie are introduced.
1989: Barbie doll's 30th Anniversary. 1200 Pink Jubilee Barbie are given to invitation-only attendees. Army Barbie is marketed.
1990: Sophisticated Lady Barbie is added to the Limited Edition Porcelain Collection. Bob Mackie Gold Barbie is introduced with over 5,000 golden sequins and beads. It is Dolls magazine's "1990 Award of Excellence" and Doll Reader magazine's "Doty Doll of the Year Award." Air Force Barbie debuts. Nigerian Barbie and Brazilian Barbie join the Dolls of the World.
1991: Starlight Splendor Barbie and Platinum Barbie are added to the long line. Navy Barbie doll is introduced. Gay Parisienne Barbie doll is marketed. Czechoslovakian Barbie debuts.
1992: Stacie is introduced. Marine Corps Barbie debuts. Barbie store opens at FAO Schwarz in New York. Crystal Rhapsody Barbie debuts is the first mail-order Barbie doll. It is part of the Presidential Porcelain Barbie Collection. Neptune Fantasy Barbie and Empress Bride Barbie are marketed. Benefit Ball Barbie of the Classique Collection is introduced.
1993: 1920s Flapper Barbie and Gibson Girl Barbie of the Great Eras Collection are introduced. The First Edition Native American Barbie debuts and is added to the World Collection. The Masquerade Ball Barbie debuts.
1994: Barbie doll’s 35th Anniversary. Mattel reproduces the original number 1 Barbie. Limited Edition Jubilee Barbie is introduced and only 5,000 were made for domestic distribution. Kenyan Barbie and Chinese Barbie join Dolls of the World. Hollywood Legends Collection begins with as Scarlet O' Hara Barbie. Queen of Hearts Barbie is marketed.
1995: Mattel’s 50th Anniversary. Limited Edition 50th Anniversary Barbie is released. Kelly is introduced. The second doll in the Hollywood Legends Collection with Dorothy Barbie from The Wizard of Oz is introduced. Goddess of the Sun Barbie debuts. Rapunzel Barbie debuts as part of the new Children’s Collector Series.
1996: Barbie web site is available. Moon Goddess Barbie debuts. Barbie Millicent Roberts Collection debuts. Limited Edition Vintage Reproduction Poodle Parade Barbie is introduced. Hollywood Legends Collection features Barbie as Eliza Doolittle in My Fair Lady.
1997: Harley-Davidson Barbie, a Toys 'R Us and Harley-Davidson dealership exclusive, debuts. Official Barbie Collector’s Club debuts. Marilyn Barbie is added to the Hollywood Legends Collection. Grand Premier Barbie doll, the first doll for club members only is marketed. Limelight Barbie is introduced. Billions of Dreams Barbie debuts. Classic Ballet Series with Sugar Plum Fairy Barbie.
1998: Sunflower Barbie, second in the Artist Series, is marketed. Happy Holidays Barbie doll series ends. Timeless Sentiments Collection is introduced with the Angel of Joy Barbie. Nolan Miller's Sheer Illusion Barbie and Vera Wang's bridal gown Barbie debut. Harley-Davidson Barbie #2 is released.
1999: Silken Flame Barbie doll selected as a 1960s lifestyle for the U.S. Postal Service's Celebrate the Century™ stamp series. Le Papillon™ Barbie and Crystal Jubilee Barbie debuts. Barbie doll's 40th Anniversary. New face sculpting is used on Coca-Cola Barbie, NASCAR Official #94 Barbie, and Barbie in the Barbie and Kenny Country Duet Set. Collector Edition 40th Anniversary Barbie is released. Gala Edition 40th Anniversary Barbie has a very Limited Edition of 20,000 dolls which are given to Toy Fair Gala attendees.
2000: Barbie for President debuts. Limited Edition dolls production is reduced to quantities of 35,000 or less. Barbie celebrates the year 2000! Barbie 2000, Millennium Wedding™, and Sydney 2000™ Olympic Pin Collector become part of the Most Collectible Doll In The World series. Hollywood Movie Star™ Collection with Barbie as part of the Golden Age of Hollywood is marketed. Barbie Fashion Model Collection debuts. Barbie Silkstone™ is introduced
2001: The Cher Barbie doll debuts. Jeannie Barbie From I Dream of Jeannie™ and The Munsters™ Barbie Lily and Ken Herman Munster are introduced.
2003: Saudi Arabia's "Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and Prevention of Vice" (the muttawa or "religious police") declares that Barbie's provocative clothing is offensive to Islam. The doll is already banned in the kingdom as a "Jewish" toy, but are available as contraband. "Jewish Barbie dolls, with their revealing clothes and shameful postures, accessories and tools are a symbol of decadence to the perverted West. Let us beware of her dangers and be careful."

Trivia

  • In Sweden, more Barbie dolls have been sold than the country's current population.
  • There is a gene in the Drosophila fruit-fly called the "ken and barbie" gene (abbreviated ken). When this gene is absent, the flies form without external genitalia.
  • In The Simpsons, there is a parody of Barbie, called Malibu Stacy.


Further reading

  • Lord, M.G., Forever Barbie: The Unauthorized Biography of a Real Doll. Paperback ISBN 0802776949.
  • Rogers, Mary F., "Barbie Culture". Paperback ISBN 0761958886.

External links

General

Other

  • Washington Times: "Religious police take after Barbie (http://washingtontimes.com/world/20040102-112738-9433r.htm)" by Paul Martin
  • St. Petersberg Times Floridian: "Coverup girl (http://www.sptimes.com/2004/01/12/Floridian/Coverup_girl.shtml)" by Susan Taylor Martin
  • Salon.com: "The Littlest Harlot (http://www.salon.com/mwt/feature/1997/11/26harlot.html)" by Tracy Quan
  • DoYouRemember.co.uk: "Barbie memories (http://www.doyouremember.co.uk/memory.asp?memID=3142)" by the visitors of DoYouRemember.co.uk
  • "Barbie Ethology (http://xahlee.org/Periodic_dosage_dir/20030919_barbie.html)" by Xah Lee.da:Barbie

de:Barbie fr:Poupée Barbie nl:Barbie pl:Barbie pt:Barbie

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