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Bank of England

From Academic Kids

The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom, sometimes known as "The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street" or "The Old Lady".

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The Bank of England
Contents

Functions of the bank

It performs all the recognized functions of a central bank -- to maintain price stability, and subject to that, to support the economic policy of Her Majesty's Government (Bank of England Act 1998) in order to promote economic growth. It has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales (see Sterling); it is both the Government's banker and the bankers' bank; a "Lender of Last Resort"; it manages the country's foreign exchange and gold reserves; it used to be responsible for the regulation and supervision of the banking industry (see Johnson Matthey, BCCI, and Barings), although this responsibility was transferred to the Financial Services Authority in June 1998. Since 1997 the Monetary Policy Committee has had the responsibility for setting the official interest rate. Scottish and Northern Irish banks retain the right to issue their own banknotes, but they must be backed one to one with deposits in the Bank of England, excepting a few million pounds representing the value of notes they had in circulation in 1845. It maintains the Government's Consolidated Fund account. Computershare took over as the registrar for UK Government bonds (known as gilts) from the Bank at the end of 2004.
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The current Governor of the Bank of England is Mervyn Allister King, who took over on June 30 2003 from Sir Edward George.

History

The bank was founded by the Scotsman William Paterson, in 1694 to act as the English Government's banker. He proposed a loan of 1.2m to the Government; in return the subscribers would be incorporated as The Governor and Company of the Bank of England with banking privileges including the issue of notes. The Royal Charter was granted on July 27, 1694. Public finances were in so dire a condition at the time that the terms of the loan were that it was to be serviced at a rate of 8% per annum, and there was also a service charge of 4000 per annum for the management of the loan. The first governor was Sir John Houblon, who is depicted in the 50 note issued in 1990. The charter was renewed in 1742, 1764, and 1781. The Bank was originally constructed above the ancient Temple of Mithras at Walbrook, dating to the founding of Londinium in antiquity by Roman garissons. Mithras was interestingly, among other things, considered the god of contracts, a fitting association for the Bank. In 1734 the Bank moved to its current location on Threadneedle Street, slowly acquiring the land to create the edifice seen today.

When the idea and reality of the National Debt came about during the 18th century this was also managed by the bank. By the charter renewal in 1781 it was also the bankers' bank—keeping enough gold to pay its notes on demand until February 26, 1797 when war had so diminished gold reserves that the Government prohibited the Bank from paying out in gold. This lasted until 1821.

The 1844 Bank Charter Act tied the issue of notes to the gold reserves and gave the bank sole rights with regard to the issue of banknotes. Private banks which had previously had that right retained it, provided that their headquarters were outside London and that they deposited security against the notes that they issued. A few English banks continued to issue their own notes until the last of them was taken over in the 1930s. The Scottish and Northern Irish private banks still have that right. Britain remained on the gold standard until 1931 when the gold and foreign exchange reserves were transferred to the Treasury. But their management was still handled by the Bank. In 1870 the Bank was given responsibility for interest rate policy.

During the governorship of Montagu Norman, which lasted from 1920 to 1944, the Bank made deliberate efforts to move away from commercial banking and become a central bank. In 1946, shortly after the end of Norman's tenure, the Bank was nationalised.

The nearest London Underground station, and thus a busy commuter stop, is Bank station.

In 1997 the bank's Monetary Policy Committee was given sole responsibility for setting interest rates to meet the Government's stated inflation target of 2.5%. This decision was taken by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown in consultation with Tony Blair prior to the 1997 general election though the announcement was made shortly after the election. Should inflation overshoot or undershoot the target in excess of 1%, the Governor will have to write a letter to the Chancellor of the Exchequer explaining why and how he will remedy the situation. This was an astute move for several reasons;

  • it removed the politically controversial responsibility from the government
  • it was very popular with the City of London, showing a sign of the new governments desire for a strong economy
    • Following the announcement the FTSE 100 leapt rapidly and,
    • the Pound reached its highest level against the Deutschmark since Sterling's exit from the ERM

The target has now changed to 2%.

A Conservative MP Nicholas Budgen had proposed this as a Private Members Bill in 1996, but the bill failed as it had neither the support of the government nor the opposition.

Banknote issues

The Bank of England has issued banknotes since 1694. Notes were originally hand-written, although they were partially printed from 1725 onwards cashiers still had to sign each note and make them payable to someone. Notes were fully printed from 1855, no doubt to the relief of the bank's workers. Until 1928 all notes were "White Notes", printed in black and with a blank reverse. During the 20th century White Notes were issued in denominations between 5 and 1000, but in the 18th and 19th centuries there were White Notes for 1 and 2. In the twentieth century, the Bank issued notes for ten shillings and one pound for the first time on 22 November 1928 when the Bank took over responsibility for these denominations from the Treasury which had issued notes of these denominations three days after the declaration of war in 1914 in order to remove gold coins from circulation.

During the Second World War the German Operation Bernhard attempted to counterfeit various denominations between 5 and 50 in an attempt to destabilise the British economy, producing 500,000 notes each month in 1943 -- although most fell into Allied hands at the end of the war, forgeries were frequently appearing for years afterward, so all denominations of banknote above 5 were subsequently removed from circulation.

All old Bank of England notes remain exchangeable for current notes forever. Notes can either be taken in person to the Bank in London during normal business hours, or sent by post at the sender's risk to:

Exchanges,
Custodial Services,
Threadneedle Street,
London EC2R 8AH

10/-

The Bank of England's first ever ten shilling note was issued on 22 November 1928. This note featured a vignette of Britannia, a feature of the Bank's notes since 1694. The predominant colour was red-brown. Unlike previous notes it, and the contemporaneous 1 note, were not dated but are instead identified by the signature of the Chief Cashier of the time. In 1940 a metal security thread was introduced for the first time, and the colour of the note was changed to mauve for the duration of the war. The original design of the note was replaced by the "Series C" design in 1960, when Queen Elizabeth agreed to allow the use of her portrait on the notes. The ten shilling note was withdrawn following the introduction in 1969 of the fifty pence coin.

1

The Bank of England's first one pound note since 1845 was issued on 22 November 1928. This note featured a vignette of Britannia, a feature of the Bank's notes since 1694. The predominant colour was green. Unlike previous notes it, and the contemporaneous ten shilling note, were not dated but are instead identified by the signature of the Chief Cashier of the time. In 1940 a metal security thread was introduced for the first time, and the colour of the note was changed to pink for the duration of the war. The original design of the note was replaced by the "Series C" design in 1960, when Queen Elizabeth agreed to allow the use of her portrait on the notes. In 1977 the "Series D" design (known as the "Pictorial Series") featuring Sir Isaac Newton on the reverse was issued, but following the introduction in 1983 of the One Pound coin, the note was withdrawn from circulation in 1988.

5

The first Bank of England 5 note was issued in 1793 in response to the need for smaller denomination banknotes to replace gold coin during the French Revolutionary Wars (previously the smallest note issued had been 10). The 1793 design, latterly known as the "White Fiver" (black printing on white paper), remained in circulation essentially unchanged until 1957 when the multicoloured (although predominantly dark blue) "Series B" note, depicting the helmeted Britannia was introduced. This note was replaced in turn in 1963 by the "Series C" 5 note which for the first time introduced the portrait of the monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, to the 5 note (the Queen's portrait having first appeared on the Series C ten shilling and one pound notes issued in 1960). In 1971 the "Series D" pictorial 5 note was issued, showing a slightly older portrait of the Queen and a battle scene featuring the Duke of Wellington on the reverse. On 7 June 1990 the "Series E" 5 note, by now the smallest denomination issued by the Bank, was issued. The Series E note (known as the "Historical Series") changed the colour of the denomination to a turquoise blue, and incorporated design elements to make photocopying and computer reproduction of the notes more difficult. Initially the reverse of the Series E 5 note featured the railway engineer George Stephenson, but on 21 May 2002 a new Series E note was produced featuring the prison reformer Elizabeth Fry. The original issue of the Fry banknote was withdrawn after it was found the ink on the serial number could be rubbed off the surface of the note. The Stephenson 5 note was withdrawn as legal tender from 21 October 2003, at which time it formed around 54 million of the 211 million 5 notes in circulation.

10

The first ten pound note was issued in 1759, when the Seven Years War caused severe gold shortages. Following the withdrawal of the denomination after the Second World War, it was not reintroduced until the Series C design of the mid 1960s produced the brown ten pound note. The Series D pictorial note appeared in the early 1970s, featuring nurse Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) on the reverse, plus a scene showing her work at the army hospital in Scutari during the Crimean War. This note was subsequently replaced in the early 1990s by the Series E note, where the predominant colour was changed from brown to orange. The reverse of the first Series E 10 featured Charles Dickens and a scene from the Pickwick Papers (this note was withdrawn from circulation in July 2003), while a second Series E note was issued in 2000 featuring Charles Darwin, the HMS Beagle, a hummingbird, and flowers under a magnifying glass, illustrating the Origin of Species. (It is a feature of the series E notes that the people illustrated on the reverse all either have luxuriant beards or extravagant hairstyles, to make copying more difficult).

20

After the Second World War, the 20 denomination did not reappear until Series D in the early 1970s. The predominant colour of this denomination is purple. The reverse of the Series D 20 features a statue of William Shakespeare and the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet. In 1992 this note was replaced by the first Series E note, featuring the physicist Michael Faraday and the Royal Institution lectures. By 1999 this note had been extensively copied, and therefore it became the first denomination to be replaced by a second Series E design, featuring a bolder denomination figure at the top left of the obverse side, and a reverse side featuring the composer Sir Edward Elgar and Worcester Cathedral.

50

The fifty pound denomination, much beloved of second hand car and antique dealers, did not reappear until 1981 when a Series D design was issued featuring the architect Christopher Wren and the plan of Saint Pauls' Cathedral on the reverse of this large note. In 1990 this denomination saw the start of the Series E issue, when the Bank commemorated its own impending tercentenary by putting its first governor, Sir John Houblon on the reverse. The series E 50 saw the first use on Bank of England notes of a hologram on the note, a practice which has been extended to all the Bank's notes with the second issue of Series E notes.

Chief Cashiers of the Bank of England 1694-

  • John Kendrick 1694
  • Thomas Speed 1694 - 1699
  • James Collier 1739 - 1751
  • Ellas Simes 1751 - 1759
  • Daniel Race 1759 - 1775
  • Charles Jewson 1775 - 1778
  • Abraham Newland 1778 - 1807
  • Henry Hase 1807 - 1829
  • Thomas Rippon 1829 - 1835
  • Matthew Marshall 1829 - 1835
  • William Miller 1864 - 1866
  • George Forbes 1866 - 1873
  • Frank May 1873 - 1893
  • Horace George Bowen 1893 - 1902
  • John Gordon Nairne 1902 - 1918
  • Ernest Musgrave Harvey 1918 - 1925
  • C.P. Mahon 1925 - 1930
  • B.G. Catterns 1930 - 1934
  • K.O. Peppiatt 1934 - 1950
  • P.S. Beale 1950 - 1955
  • L.K. O'Brien 1955 - 1962
  • J.Q. Hollom 1962 - 1967
  • J.S. Fforde 1967 - 1971
  • J.B. Page 1971 - 1980
  • D.H.F. Somerset 1980 - 1988
  • G.M. Gill 1988 - 1992
  • G.E.A. Kentfield 1992 - 1999
  • Merlyn Lowther 1999 - 2003 (first woman to hold the post)
  • Andrew Bailey 2004 -

Governors of the Bank of England 1694-

  • Sir John Houblon (1694-1697)
  • Sir William Scawen (1697-1699)
  • Nathaniel Tench (1699-1701)
  • John Ward (1701-1703)
  • Abraham Houblon (1703-1705)
  • Sir James Bateman (1705-1707)
  • Francis Eyles (1707-1709)
  • Sir Gilbert Heathcote (1709-1711)
  • Nathaniel Gould (1711-1713)
  • John Rudge (1713-1715)
  • Sir Peter Delme (1715-1717)
  • Sir Gerard Conyers (1717-1719)
  • John Hanger (1719-1721)
  • Sir Thomas Scawen (1721-1723)
  • Sir Gilbert Heathcote (1723-1725)
  • William Thompson (1725-1727)
  • Humphry Morice (1727-1729)
  • Samuel Holden (1729-1731)
  • Sir Edward Bellamy (1731-1733)
  • Horatio Townshend (1733-1735)
  • Bryan Benson (1735-1737)
  • Thomas Cooke (1737-1740)
  • Delillers Carbonnel (1740-1741)
  • Stamp Brooksbank (1741-1743)
  • William Fawkener (1743-1745)
  • Charles Savage (1745-1747)
  • Benjamin Longuet (1747-1749)
  • William Hunt (1749-1752)
  • Alexander Sheafe (1752-1754)
  • Charles Palmer (1754-1756)
  • Matthews Beachcroft (1756-1758)
  • Merrik Burrell (1758-1760)
  • Bartholomew Burton (1760-1762)
  • Robert Marsh (1762-1764)
  • John Weyland (1764-1766)
  • Matthew Clarmont (1766-1769)
  • William Cooper (1769-1771)
  • Edward Payne (1771-1773)
  • James Sperling (1773-1775)
  • Samuel Beachcroft (1775-1777)
  • Peter Gaussen (1777-1779)
  • Daniel Booth (1779-1781)
  • William Ewer (1781-1783)
  • Richard Neave (1783-1785)
  • George Peters (1785-1787)
  • Edward Darell (1787-1789)
  • Mark Weyland (1789-1791)
  • Samuel Bosanquet (1791-1793)
  • Godfrey Thornton (1793-1795)
  • Daniel Giles (1795-1797)
  • Thomas Raikes (1797-1799)
  • Samuel Thornton (1799-1801)
  • Job Mathew (1801-1802)
  • Joseph Nutt (1802-1804)
  • Benjamin Winthrop (1804-1806)
  • Beeston Long (1806-1808)
  • John Whitmore (1808-1810)
  • John Pearse (1810-1812)
  • William Manning (1812-1814)
  • William Mellish (1814-1816)
  • Jeremiah Harman (1816-1818)
  • George Dorrien (1818-1820)
  • Charles Pole (1820-1822)
  • John Bowden (1822-1824)
  • Cornelius Buller (1824-1826)
  • John Baker Richards (1826-1828)
  • Samuel Drewe (1828-1830)
  • John Horsley Palmer (1830-1833)
  • Richard Mee Raikes (1833-1834)
  • James Pattison (1834-1837)
  • Timothy Abraham Curtis (1837-1839)
  • Sir John Rae Reid (1839-1841)
  • Sir John Henry Pelly (1841-1842)
  • William Cotton (1842-1845)
  • John Benjamin Heath (1845-1847)
  • William Robinson Robinson (April 1847-August 1847)
  • James Morris (1847-1849)
  • Henry James Prescot (1849-1851)
  • Thomson Hankey (1851-1853)
  • John Gellibrand Hubbard (1853-1855)
  • Thomas Matthias Weguelin (1855-1857)
  • Sheffield Neave (1857-1859)
  • Bonamy Dobree (1859-1861)
  • Alfred Latham (1861-1863)
  • Kirkman Daniel Hodgson (1863-1865)
  • Henry Lancelot Holland (1865-1867)
  • Thomas Newman Hunt (1867-1869)
  • Robert Wigram Crawford (1869-1871)
  • George Lyall (1871-1873)
  • Benjamin Buck Greene (1873-1875)
  • Henry Hucks Gibbs (1875-1877)
  • Edward Howley Palmer (1877-1879)
  • John William Birch (1879-1881)
  • Henry Riversdale Grenfell (1881-1883)
  • John Saunders Gilliat (1883-1885)
  • James Pattison Currie (1885-1887)
  • Mark Wilks Collet (1887-1889)
  • William Lidderdale (1889-1892)
  • David Powell (1892-1895)
  • Albert George Sandeman (1895-1897)
  • Hugh Colin Smith (1897-1899)
  • Samuel Steuart Gladstone (1899-1901)
  • Augustus Prevost (1901-1903)
  • Samuel Hope Morley (1903-1905)
  • Alexander Falconer Wallace (1905-1907)
  • William Middleton Campbell (1907-1909)
  • Reginald Eden Johnston (1909-1911)
  • Alfred Clayton Cole (1911-1913)
  • Walter Cunliffe, Baron Cunliffe (1913-1918)
  • Sir Brien Ibrican Cokayne (1918-1920)
  • Montagu Collet Norman (1920-1944)
  • Thomas Sivewright Catto, Baron Catto of Cairncatto (1944-1949)
  • Cameron Fromanteel Cobbold, 1st Baron Cobbold of Knebworth (March 1949-30 June 1961)
  • George Rowland Stanley Baring, 3rd Earl of Cromer (1 July 1961-1966)
  • Sir Leslie O'Brien (1966-1973)
  • Gordon Richardson (1973-1983)
  • Robin Leigh-Pemberton (1983-1993)
  • Lord Edward George (1993-30 June 2003)
  • Mervyn King (1 July 2003-)

The Bank of England Museum

The Bank of England Museum is located on the eastern side of its main building and is open to the public free of charge on weekdays only. It covers around 10,000 square feet (1,000 square metres), and includes a reconstructed late 18th century office. The displays cover the history of the bank in roughly chronological order. The collections include banknotes and coins, books and documents, pictures, furniture, statues and silver.

See also

External links

he:בנק אנגליה ja:イングランド銀行 no:Bank of England sv:Bank of England

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