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Aschaffenburg

From Academic Kids

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Aschaffenburg_in_Germany.png
Map of Germany showing Aschaffenburg

Aschaffenburg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located on the right bank of the Main and its confluence with the narrow Aschaff river, near the foot of the Spessart. The city of Aschaffenburg is not included in the district of Aschaffenburg, but is its administrative seat. It is also known as the Tor zur Spessart or "gate to the Spessart mountain range." Although it is within Bavaria, the city's inhabitants are Franconians, not Bavarians. Population: 66,800 (1999).

Contents

History

Aschaffenburg, called in the Middle Ages Ascapha or Ascaphaburg, was originally a Roman settlement. Roman legions had their station here, and on the ruins of their castrum the Frankish mayors of the palace built a castle. Saint Boniface erected a chapel to Saint Martin, and founded a Benedictine monastery. A stone bridge over the Main was built by Archbishop Willigis in 989. Adalbert increased the importance the town in various ways about 1122. In 1292 a synod was held here, and in 1474 an imperial diet, preliminary to that of Vienna, in which the concordat was decided which has therefore sometimes called the Aschaffenburg Concordat.

The town suffered greatly during the Thirty Years' War, being held in turn by the various belligerents. In 1842-1849, King Ludwig I of Bavaria built himself to the west of the town a country house, Pompejanum, so called from its being an imitation of the house of Castor and Pollux at Pompeii. In 1866 the Prussians inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians in the neighbourhood during the Austro-Prussian War.

The principality of Aschaffenburg, deriving its name from the city, comprehended an area of 1694 km². It formed part of the electorate of the Archbishop of Mainz, and in 1803 was made over to the chancellor, Archbishop Charles of Dalberg. In 1806 it was annexed to the grand duchy of Frankfurt; and in 1814 was transferred to Bavaria, in virtue of a treaty concluded between that power and Austria. Within Unterfranken, it now forms a part of the Bundesland of Bavaria.

Sights

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Schloss Johannisburg
Its chief buildings are the Schloss Johannisburg, built (1605-1614) by Archbishop Schweikard von Kronberg, which contains a library with a number of incunabula, a collection of engravings and paintings; the Stiftskirche, or cathedral, founded in 974 by Otto of Swabia, duke of Bavaria, but dating in the main from the early 12th century on, in which are preserved various monuments by e Vischers, a sarcophagus with the relics of Saint Margaret, and a famous painting by Matthias Grünewald; the Capuchin hospital; a theatre, which was formerly a house of the Teutonic Order; and several mansions of the nobility.

The graves of Clemens Brentano and his brother Christian Brentano (died 1851) and that of Wilhelm Heinse are on the Altstadtfriedhof.

Information originally based on http://www.1911encyclopedia.org

Population

Historical Population of Aschaffenburg:
  1939: 48,042
  1950: 48,947
  1961: 58,433
  1970: 59,838
  1987: 60,964
  2002: 68,682

External link

  • Official Website (http://www.aschaffenburg.de) (German, English, French, Italian, Hebrew)


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