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Antonio Salieri

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Antonio Salieri
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Antonio Salieri

Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750May 7, 1825), born in Legnago, Italy, was a composer and conductor as well as one of the most important and famous musicians of his time.

Raised in a prosperous family of merchants, Salieri studied violin and harpsichord with his brother Francesco, who was a student of Giuseppe Tartini. After the early death of his parents, he moved to Padua, then to Venice, where he studied thoroughbass with Giovanni Battista Pescetti. There he met Florian Leopold Gassmann in 1766, who invited him to attend the court of Vienna and there trained him in composition based on Fux's Gradus ad Parnassum. He remained in Vienna for the remainder of his life, and in 1774, after Gassmann´s death, Salieri was appointed court composer by Emperor Joseph II, and Imperial Royal Kapellmeister in 1788, a post which he held till 1824. He was president of the "Tonkünstler-Societät" (society of musical artists) from 1788 to 1795, vice-president after 1795, and in charge of its concerts until 1818.

During his time in Vienna, Salieri acquired great prestige as a composer and conductor, particularly of opera, but also of chamber and sacred music. The most successful of his more than 40 operas included Armida (1771), La scuola de´ gelosi (1778), Der Rauchfangkehrer (1781), Les Danaïdes (1784), which was first presented as a work of Gluck's, Tarare (1787), Axur, Re d´Ormus (1788), Palmira, Regina di Persia (1795), and Falstaff o sia Le tre burle (1799). He wrote comparatively little instrumental music, including two piano concertos and a concerto for organ written in 1773, a concerto for flute, oboe and orchestra (1774), a set of 26 variations on La Follia di Spagna (1815) and several serenades for winds.

He attained an elevated social standing, and was frequently associated with other celebrated composers like Joseph Haydn or Louis Spohr. His was important role in 19th century classical music: he taught famous composers like Ludwig van Beethoven, Carl Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Franz Liszt, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Ignaz Moscheles, Franz Schubert and Franz Xaver Süssmayr. He also taught Mozart's younger son, Franz Xaver.

Salieri is buried in the Matzleinsdorfer Friedhof (today Zentralfriedhof) in Vienna, Austria. At his funeral service his own Requiem in C minor - composed in 1804 - was performed for the first time. His monument is adorned by a poem written by Joseph Weigl, one of his pupils:

Rest in peace! Uncovered by dust
eternity shall bloom for you.
Rest in peace! In eternal harmonies
your spirit now is dissolved.
He expressed himself in enchanting notes,
now he is floating to everlasting beauty.

Salieri and Mozart

In Vienna in the 1790s, Mozart mentions several "cabals" of Salieri concerning his new opera Così fan tutte. As Mozart's music became more popular over the decades, Salieri's music was forgotten, Mozart's allegations gained credence and tarnished Salieri's reputation. At the beginning of the 19th century, increasing nationalism led to a tendency to transfigure the German Mozart´s genius, while the Italian Salieri was given the role of his evil antagonist. Albert Lortzing´s Singspiel Szenen aus Mozarts Leben LoWV28 (1832) uses the cliché of the intrigant Salieri trying to hinder Mozart´s career. While Italian by birth, Salieri had lived in imperial Vienna since he was 16 years old and was regarded as a German composer. In 1772, Empress Maria Theresia made a comment on her preference to Italian composers over Germans like Gassmann, Salieri or Gluck. Salieri saw himself as a German composer, which some of his German letters, operas, cantatas, and songs seem to prove.

The biographer Alexander Wheelock Thayer believes that Mozart's suspicions of Salieri could have originated with an incident in 1781 when Mozart applied to be the music teacher of the Princess of Württemberg, and Salieri was selected instead because of his good reputation as a singing teacher. In the following year Mozart once again failed to be selected as the Princess's piano teacher.

Later on, when Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro was not well received by either the Emperor Joseph II nor by the public, Mozart blamed Salieri for the failure. "Salieri and his tribe will move heaven and earth to put it down", Leopold Mozart wrote to his daughter Nannerl. But at the time of the premiere of Figaro, Salieri was busy with his new French opera Les Horaces. Thayer believes that the intrigues surrounding the failure of Figaro were instigated by the poet Giovanni Battista Casti against the Court Poet, Lorenzo da Ponte, who wrote the Figaro libretto.

Later, when da Ponte was in Prague preparing the production of Mozart's setting of his Don Giovanni, the poet was ordered back to Vienna for a royal wedding for which Salieri's Axur, Re d´Ormus would be performed. Obviously, Mozart was not pleased by this.

There is far more evidence of a cooperative atmosphere between the two composers than for a real enmity, however. For example, when Salieri was appointed Kapellmeister in 1788, he revived Figaro instead of bringing out a new opera of his own, and when he went to the coronation festivities for Leopold II in 1790 he had no less than three Mozart masses in his luggage. Salieri and Mozart even composed a song for voice and piano together, called Per la ricuperata salute di Ofelia, which was celebrating the happy return to stage of the famous singer Nancy Storace. This song is unfortunately lost, although it had been printed by Artaria in 1785. Mozart´s Davidde penitente K 469 (1785), his piano concerto in E flat major K 482 (1785), the clarinet quintet K 581 (1789) or the great symphony in G minor K 550 had been premiered on the suggestion of Salieri, who even conducted a performance of it in 1791. In his last surviving letter from October 14th 1791, Mozart tells his wife about Salieri´s attendance at his opera Die Zauberflöte K 620, speaking enthusiastically: "He heard and saw with all his attention, and from the ouverture to the last choir there was no piece that didn´t elicit a bravo or bello out of him [...]"

Salieri's health declined in his later years, and he was hospitalized shortly before his death. It was shortly after he died that rumors first spread that he had confessed to Mozart's murder on his deathbed. Salieri's two nurses, Gottlieb Parsko and Georg Rosenberg, as well as his family doctor Joseph Röhrig, attested that he never said any such thing. At least one of these three people were with him throughout his hospitalization.

After Salieri's death in 1825, Puschkin´s drama Mozart i Saljeri (1831) and the opera setting of this work by Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1898) started a tradition of poetic license based on Mozart's allegations, continued and popularized by Peter Shaffer´s heavily fictionalized play Amadeus (1979) and the Oscar-winning 1984 film by Milos Forman based on it, in which F. Murray Abraham played Salieri and Tom Hulce played the title character. While it is never explicitly stated in the play that Salieri killed Mozart, he is portrayed as bitterly hating his rival, going so far as to renounce God for blessing Mozart (portrayed in the play as an immature dandy) with fantastic talent while refusing to let him be anything but "a mediocrity." (A "Director's Cut" was released on 2001 with an additional 20 minutes of footage).

In addition to the allegations of murder, the movie also portrays Salieri as a mediocre composer, an intriguer, and a blasphemer. In reality, his talent was then and is to this day applauded, and numerous contemporaries attested his kind nature and public-spirited mind. His religious devotion is undisputed by his biographers. In a way, Shaffer's depiction of Salieri is similar to Shakespeare's characterization of Richard III; he makes for a complex, fascinating villain, despite much historical evidence to the contrary.

List of works

Secular vocal music

  • Operas
    • Annibale in Capua (1801)
    • Armida (1771)
    • Axur, Re d´Ormus (1788)
    • Catilina (1790-92) - premiered posthumous 1994 in Darmstadt -
    • Cesare in Farmacusa (1800)
    • Cublai, gran Kan de´ Tartari (1786-88) - premiered posthumous 1998 in Würzburg -
    • Danaus (ca. 1807) - german version of Les Danaïdes -
    • Das Posthaus - fragment, lost -
    • Delmita e Daliso (1776)
    • Der Rauchfangkehrer oder Die unentbehrlichen Verräter ihrer Herrschaften aus Eigennutz (1781)
    • Die Generalprobe - fragment -
    • Die Neger (1802, premiered in 1804)
    • Don Chisciotte alle nozze di Gamace (1770)
    • Eraclito e Democrito (1795)
    • L´Europa riconosciuta (1778)
    • Falstaff ossia Le tre burle (1799)
    • Ifigenia in Tauride (1783) - fragment -
    • Il Barone di Rocca Antica (1772)
    • Il Mondo alla rovescia (1792, premiered in 1795)
    • Il Moro (1796)
    • Il Pastor fido (1789)
    • Il Ricco d´un giorno (1784)
    • Il Talismano (1779) - first act by Salieri, second and third act by Giacomo Rust -
    • Il Talismano (1788)
    • I tre filosofi (1797) - fragment -
    • L´Amore innocente (1770)
    • L´Angiolina ossia Il matrimonio per sussurro (1800)
    • La Bella selvaggia (1802) - not performed -
    • La Calamità de´ cuori (1774)
    • La Cifra (1789)
    • La Dama pastorella (1780)
    • La Fiera di Venezia (1772)
    • La Finta scema (1775)
    • La Grotta di Trofonio (1785)
    • La Locandiera (1773)
    • La Moda ossia Gli scompligi domestici (1771) - Pasticcio, parts of second and third act by Salieri -
    • La Partenza inaspettata (1779)
    • La Scuola de´gelosi (1778, second version 1783)
    • La Scuola degli amanti ossia Così fan tutte (ca. 1789) - fragment -
    • La Secchia rapita (1772)
    • La Vestale (1769) - lost -
    • Le Couronnement de Tarare (1790) - addition to Tarare -
    • Le Donne letterate (1770)
    • Les Danaïdes (1784)
    • Les Horaces (1786)
    • Palmira, Regina di Persia (1795)
    • Prima la musica e poi le parole (1786)
    • Semiramide (1782)
    • Tarare (1787)
  • Insertion arias and ensembles
    • "Addio carina bella" (Meng.) aria in G major for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Affé questa sera grandissima" - "Una domina? Una nipote?" (Don Anchise) arie & recitative for bass and orchestra (1775?), for P. Anfossi´s "La Finta giardiniera"?
    • "Ah ciel che noja è questa" - fragment -
    • "Ah dove amici" recitative for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Ah non siete ogni si facile" (Tenast) aria for tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "Alla speranza" (Galatea) aria for soprano and Orchestra, for?
    • "All´idea del gran mistero" aria in A major for soprano, choir and orchestra, for?
    • "Anch´io nello specchio talora" aria in E major for soprano and orchestra (1771), for?
    • "Cedo l´intatto pegno" (Dely - Davidde) duet for soprano, tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "Che mi s´appresti?" (Capitano) aria in C major for bass and orchestra (1775), for?
    • "[...] che strane vicende" (Ros. - Fior. - Pasq. - Fulg.) fragmentary finale of an opera (Atto II), for A. Felici´s "La Novità"?
    • "Chi vuol la zingara" Duett für zwei Soprane und Orchester, für?
    • "Dall´uso parigino il bello, il sopraffino" aria in C major for soprano and orchestra (1773), for?
    • "Del morir le angoscie adesso" scene and aria for tenor and orchestra
    • "Denke nicht der Zeit der Schmerzen" duet for soprano, tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "Dico sol, che la padrona" (Lena) aria for soprano and orchestra, for "La Locandiera"?
    • "D´oro saranno i letti" (Fulg.) aria in D major for bass and orchestra (1775), for?
    • "Dottorini saputelli" (Clar.) arie for soprano and orchestra (1774), for?
    • "Eccomi al punto ch´io già tanta temei" fragmentary aria for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Fate largo al gran Pasquino" (Pasquino) aria in D major for bass and orchestra (1775), for A. Felici´s "La Novità"?
    • "Figlia mia diletta" trio for soprano, tenor, bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Fra tanto pietre brune" (Polidoro) recitative for bass and orchestra (1785?), für D. Cimarosa´s "L´Italiana in Londra"?
    • "Gelosia d´amore è figlia" aria for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Goder lasciatemi" (Gianetta) aria for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Gran diavolo!" (Uberto) aria in F major for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Guarda in quel volto" aria in E flat major for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Ho perduto la mia pace" (Brettone) aria for tenor and orchestra (1775), for G. Paisiello´s "L´Innocenza fortunata"?
    • "Ho stampato libri in foglio" aria for tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "Il pargoletto amabile" aria in A major for tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "In tuo favore mi parla il core" duet for two sopranos and orchestra, for?
    • "Io contento", recitative, for?
    • "Io di nuovo vel ripeto" aria for soprano and orchestra (1777), for?
    • "Io lo dico e il posso dire" trio for alto, tenor, bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Io non so che pensare" recitative and cavatina for tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "La donna è sempre instabile" (Belfusio) aria for tenor and orchestra, for "La Fiera di Venezia"?
    • "La mia morosa me l´ha fatta" (Sandrina) aria for soprano and orchestra, for "Il Talismano"?
    • "L´amour est un dieu" Canzone for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "La sposa se cedo" aria for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Le diras, che il campione" (Gusman) aria for bass and orchestra (1775), for?
    • "Le Inconvenienze teatrali" quartet for soprano, alto, tenor, bass and orchestra, for?
    • "L´introduco immantinente" - "Quando ho visto il dottorino" (Rosina) recitative and aria for soprano and orchestra (1776), for "La Finta scema"
    • "Madame vezzosissima" (Zeffirina - Valerio) fragmentary recitative and duet, for?
    • "Ma quai mali intorno al core" aria for tenor and orchestra
    • "Ma quale agli occhi miei" (Conte) recitative, for?
    • "Mia vaga Dorilla" aria for Bass and orchestra (1775), for B. Galuppi´s "Il Marchese villano"
    • "Moriam, moriam mia vita" recitative and duet for soprano, tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "Nel mio seno" aria, for?
    • "Non per parlar d´amore" (Laurina) aria in E flat major for soprano and orchestra, for N. Piccinni´s "L´Astretta"
    • "Non temer che d´altri" (Falsirena) aria for soprano and orchestra (1779), for "La Fiera di Venezia"
    • "Non veste alla moda" (Aga.) aria for bass and orchestra (1774), for?
    • "Non vi fidate" aria for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Oh che donna che matta" (Peppino), recitative, for?
    • "Oh me infelice - Allor potrei" recitative and aria, for?
    • "Oh qual sorpasso giubilo" (Pilemone) aria in F major für bass and orchestra, for "Eraclito e Democrito"?
    • "Oh quanti veggarsi" (Cardano) aria for tenor and orchestra, for "Il Talismano"?
    • "Oh sancte inviete" aria for soprano and orchestra (1775), for?
    • "Padrona stimatissima" (Pasquino) aria in D major for bass and orchestra, for A. Felici´s "La Novità"?
    • "Parlaste d´un cappone" aria for bass and orchestra (1776), for?
    • "Pasquino avrà quest´ora" recitative, for A. Felici´s "La Novità"?
    • "Paterio giudizio" aria for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Per amore io già vancillo" (Perillo) aria for tenor and orchestra (1770), for?
    • "Perder sogetto amato" duet for two sopranos and orchestra, for?
    • "Per voi s´avanzi" aria for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Qual densa notte" (Artalice - Chabri - Nehemia - Chor) finale of an opera, for?
    • "Quando sarà mia sposa" (Capitano) aria for bass and orchestra (1775), for?
    • "Quest´è un mar di confusione" quartet for sopran, alto, tenor, bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Rasserena nel tuo barbaro" fragmentary aria, for?
    • "Sans argent et sans crédit" (Boschetto - Pirati - Lauretta) scene with orchestra (1768), for?
    • "Scomodarmi da palazzo e trattarmi in questa guisa" aria in F major for soprano and orchestra (1775), for?
    • "Se amor m´ha dato in testa, se mi far delirare" aria for soprano and orchestra (1776), for?
    • "Se credessi di volare" (Peppino) aria in E flat major for bass and orchestra (1774), for?
    • "Se Dio veder tu vuoi" (Achio - Azia) duet, for?
    • "Se tu vedessi il core" (Isabella) aria in G major for soprano and strings, for B. Galuppi´s "Il Villano geloso"
    • "Signor mio scrivete bene" (Pasquino) aria in F major for bass and orchestra (1775), for A. Felici´s "La Novità"?
    • "S´odo, o duce" (Epponina - Voadice - Sabino - Arminio - Annio) finale of an opera (1785?), for G. Sarti´s "Giulio Sabino"
    • "Son dama, ma so l´arte ancor delle plebe" (Polissena) aria in B flat major for soprano and orchestra (1774), for G. Paisiello´s "Il Tamburo (notturno)"
    • "Son nipote d´un togato" (Isabella) aria in F major for soprano and strings, for B. Galuppi´s "Il Villano geloso"
    • "Sopra il volto sbigotito" aria in E flat major for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Talor non si comprende" aria for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Tenero cor" recitative and cavatina for soprano and orchestra (1780), for?
    • "Tu che ferita sei" aria for tenor and orchestra, for "Il Barone di Rocca antica"?
    • "Tutte le furie unite in questo petto io sento" aria for soprano and orchestra (1776), for?
    • "Tutti dicon che la moglie" aria for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Una domina? una nipote?" - see: aria "Affé questa saria grandissima" -
    • "Un bel marito" aria for soprano and orchestra, for?
    • "Un pescatore mi pare amore" aria for bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Vedi ben che queste scene" trio for soprano, alto, bass and orchestra, for?
    • "Venga su la finestra" aria for tenor, choir and orchestra, for?
    • "Venissi cari, l´affare è serio" (Patenio) aria for bass and orchestra (1777), for?
    • "Verdammter Streich" (Mauser) aria for tenor and orchestra, for?
    • "[...] vicino a perdere l´amato ben" fragmentary aria, for?
    • "Villottino mio bellino" (Lisetta) aria for alto and orchestra (1775), for?
    • "Vi son sposa" aria, for?
    • aria (Polissena) for soprano and orchestra (1774), for G. Paisiello´s "Il Tamburo (notturno)"
    • finale of an opera for three sopranos, two tenors, bass and orchester (1779), for "La Scuola de´gelosi"?
  • Ballets and incidental music
    • Ballet in 7 movements for "L´Europa riconosciuta" (1778)
    • Ballet in 16 movements
    • Ballet in 10 movements
    • Ballet in 8 movements
    • Fragmentary ballet
    • Overture, four incidental pieces and nine choirs for "Die Hussiten vor Naumburg" by August von Kotzebue (1803)
  • Secular cantatas
    • "Cantata per le nozze di Francesco I" for soloists, choir and orchestra (1808)
    • "Der Tyroler Landsturm" for soprano, tenor, bass, choir and orchestra (1799)
    • "Die vier Tageszeiten" for choir and orchestra (1819)
    • "Du, dieses Bundes Fels" for choir and orchestra
    • "Habsburg" for tenor, bass, choir and orchestra (1805/06)
    • "Il Trionfo della Gloria e della Virtù" for two sopranos, tenor, choir and orchestra (1774 or 1775)
    • "La Riconoscenza" for soprano, choir of five voices and orchestra (1796)
    • "La Riconoscenza de´ Tirolesi" for choir and Orchester (1800)
    • "La Sconfitta di Borea" for soloists, choir and orchestra (1774 or 1775)
    • "Lasset uns nahen alle" for tenor, bass, choir and Orchester
    • "Le Jugement dernier" for tenor, choir and orchestra (1787/88)
    • "L´Oracolo muto" for soloists, choir and orchestra (1802/03)
    • "Wie eine purpur Blume" for two sopranos, choir and orchestra
  • Secular choirs
    • "An den erwünschten Frieden im Jahr 1814" for choir and orchestra (1814)
    • "An die Religion" for choir a cappella (1814)
    • "Bei Gelegenheit des Friedens" for soprano solo, tenor, bass and orchestra (1800)
    • "Beide reichen Dir die Hand" for choir - fragment -
    • "Del redentore lo scempio" for choir and orchestra (ca. 1805)
    • "Der Vorsicht Gunst beschütze, beglücktes Österreich, dich" for choir and orchestra (1813) - new version of the final movement of "Der Tyroler Landsturm" (1799) -
    • "Dio serva Francesco" for choir and orchestra
    • "Do re mi fa" for choir a cappella (1818)
    • "Es schallen die Töne" for choir and orchestra
    • "Herzliche Empfindung bey dem so lange ersehnten und nun hergestellten Frieden im Jahr 1814" for choir and orchestra (1814)
    • "O Friede, reich am Heil des Herrn" - see: "Herzliche Empfindung bey dem so lange ersehnten und nun hergestellten Frieden im Jahr 1814" -
    • "Hinab in den Schoß der Amphitrite" for choir and orchestra (from "Danaus"?)
    • "Il piacer la gioia" for choir and orchestra
    • "Ogni bosco, ogni pendice" for choir and orchestra
    • "Religion, Du Himmelstochter" - see: "An die Religion" -
    • "Schweb herab, o holder Seraph Friede" - see: "An den erwünschten Frieden im Jahr 1814" -
    • "Schwer lag auf unserem Vaterlande" - see: "Rückerinnerung der Deutschen nell´anno 1813" -
    • "Rückerinnerung der Deutschen nell´anno 1813" for choir and orchestra (1813/14)
  • Songs, ensembles and canons with or without piano

- ca. 340 works -


Sacred vocal music

  • Oratories and sacred cantatas
    • "Davidde" for soloists, choir and orchestra (1791) - fragment -
    • "Gesù al limbo" for soloists, choir and orchestra (1803)
    • "La passione di Gesù Cristo" for soloists, choir and Orchester (1776)
    • "Le Jugement dernier" for tenor, choir and orchestra (1787/88) - see above -
    • "Saul" for soloists, choir and orchestra (1791) - fragment -
  • Masses und single movements
    • Mass in C major for choir a cappella (1767)
    • Mass in D major for choir and orchestra (1788) - called "Hofkapellmeistermesse" -
    • Mass in C major for double choir and orchestra (1799) - called "Proklamationsmesse" -
    • Mass in D minor for soloists, choir and orchestra (1805)
    • Mass in B flat major for soloists, choir and orchestra (1809)
    • Kyrie in C major for soloists, choir and orchestra (1812) - part of an unfinished mass -
    • Kyrie in F major for choir and orchestra - fragment -
  • Requiem masses
    • Requiem in c minor for soloists, choir and orchestra (1804)
    • Requiem in d minor for choir and orchestra (ca. 1815-20) - fragment -
  • Graduals
    • "Ad te levavi animam meam" in E flat major for choir and orchestra
    • "A solis ortu" pro Festo SS. Corporis Christi, in C major for choir and orchestra (1810)
    • "Benedicam Dominum" pro Dominica 12ma post Pentecostem aut de Tempore, in B flat major for choir and orchestra
    • "Confirma hoc Deus" in C major for soloists, choir and orchestra (1809)
    • "Improperium" in c minor for choir a cappella
    • "Justorum animae" in A major for choir and orchestra
    • "Liberasti nos, Domine" pro Dominica XXIII. et ultima post Pentecostem, in D major for choir and orchestra (1799)
    • "Magna opera Domini" da tempore, in D major for choir and orchestra (1810)
    • "Spiritus meus" in d minor for choir and orchestra (1820)
    • "Tres sunt, qui testimonium dant in coelo" de SS. Trinitate, in D major for choir and orchestra
    • "Veni Sancte Spiritus" in B flat major for choir and orchestra (1800)
    • "Veni Sancte Spiritus" pro Festo Pentecostem, in B flat major for choir and orchestra (1805)
    • "Venite gentes" in C major for double choir and orchestra (1799)
    • "Vox tua mi Jesu" in C major for choir and orchestra (1774)
  • Offertories
    • "Alleluja (deinde) Bonum est" in D major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Alleluja" in D major for choir and orchestra (1774) - 1788 reused as "Amen"-Fugue in the "Gloria" of the Mass in D major -
    • "Assumpta est Maria" in C major for choir and orchestra (1799)
    • "Audite vocem magnam" in C major for Chor und orchestra (1809)
    • "Beatus vir, qui non abit" in D major for soloists, choir and orchestra
    • "Benedixisti Domine" in F major for choir a cappella
    • "Benedixisti Domine" in F major for choir a cappella
    • "Cantate Domino omnis terra" in C major for double choir and orchestra (1799)
    • "Desiderium animae" in F major for soprano, alto, bass and orchestra
    • "Domine, Dominus noster" in G major for choir and orchestra (1812)
    • "Dum corde pio" in C major for choir, double-bass and organ
    • "Excelsus super omnes gentes Dominus" in C major for choir and orchestra (1806)
    • "Gloria et honor(e)" in C major for choir and orchestra (1809)
    • "Jubilate Deo" in A major for choir and orchestra
    • "Justus ut palma" in B flat major for choir and orchestra
    • "Lauda Sion Salvatorem" in C major for choir and orchestra (1805)
    • "Laudate Dominum omnes gentes" in D major for choir and orchestra (1809)
    • "Magna et mirabilia sunt opera tua" in C major for choir and orchestra (1809)
    • "Magna opera Domini" in C major for chor and orchestra (1812)
    • "Miserere nostri" in g minor for choir and orchestra (1805)
    • "Miserere nostri" in E flat major for choir and orchestra (1803)
    • "O altitudo divitiarium" in C major for choir and orchestra (1809)
    • "O quam bonus et suavis est" in B flat major for soloists, choir and orchestra
    • "Populi timente sanctum nomen Domini" in E flat major choir and orchestra (1778)
    • "Salve Regina" in D major for choir and orchestra (1815)
    • "Salve Regina" (on german words) in G major for choir and organ
    • "Salve Regina" in B flat major for choir and orchestra
    • "Salvum fac populum" (1805) - lost -
    • "Si ambulavero in medio" in g minor for choir and orchestra (1809)
    • "Sub tuum praesidium" in B flat major for choir and orchestra (1820)
    • "Tui sunt coeli" in C major for choir and orchestra
    • "Tui sunt coeli" in E flat major for choir and orchestra
  • Psalms
    • "Beatus vir, qui timet Dominum" in D major for two tenors, choir and orchestra
    • "Confitebor Domine" in B flat major for choir and orchestra
    • "De profundis" in f minor for choir, bass and organ (1815)
    • "De profundis" in g minor for choir and orchestra (1815)
    • "Dixit Dominus" in G major for choir and orchestra
    • "Lauda, Jerusalem, Dominum" in C major for choir and orchestra (1815)
    • "Laudate pueri Dominum" in G major for choir of six voices and orchestra
    • "Magnificat" in C major for choir and orchestra (1815)
    • "Magnificat" in F major for two-part choir and orchestra (1815)
  • Litanies
    • "Litania di B.M.V." in F major for soloists, choir and orchestra
    • "Litania pro Sabbato Sancto" in B flat major for choir a cappella (1820)
  • Hymns
    • "Coelestis urbs Jerusalem" Hymnus de dedicatione Ecclesiae, in A major for choir and orchestra
    • "Genitori" in F major for soprano, choir and orchestra
    • "In te Domine speravi" in E flat major for two sopranos and bass (1817)
    • "Tantum ergo" in C major for double choir, two clarinets, four horns, four trumpets (Clarini), timpani, double-bass and organ
    • "Tantum ergo" in C major for choir, two oboes, two bassoons, four trumpets (Clarini), timpani and organ
    • "Tantum ergo" in C major for choir, two trumpets (Clarini), timpani and organ
    • "Tantum ergo" in F major for soprano and strings (1768)
    • "Te Deum laudamus" in C major for soloists, choir and orchestra (1819)
    • "Te Deum laudamus" de Incoronazione, in D major for choir and orchestra (1790)
    • "Te Deum laudamus" in D major for double choir and orchestra (1799) - new version of the "Te Deum" from 1790 -
  • Introitus
    • "Avertisti captivitatem Jacob" pro Dominica XXIII. et XXIV. post Pentecostem, in B flat major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Beati immaculati" de Virginibus et Martyribus et de Sancto Stephano, in F major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Concupiscit et deficit" in dedicatione Ecclesia et in Festo Tranfigurationis Domini, in F major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Dico ergo" pro Festis Beatae Mariae Virginis, in d minor for choir, strings and organ
    • "Domine exaudi vocem meam" pro Dominica XXII. post Pentecostem, in F major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Et justitiam tuam" pro Festo Epiphaniae, in d minor for choir, strings and organ
    • "Et psallare" pro Festo S. Joannis Apost. et S. Joannis Bapt., in B flat major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Inductus est Dominus" pro Dominica infra octavem Nativitas Domini et ad secundam missam, in F major for choir, strings and organ
    • "In civitate" pro Festo Purificationis Mariae et Dominica VIII. post Pentecostem, in C major for choir, strings and organ
    • "In mandatis ejus" de Confessore et in Festo Sancti Joachim, in g minor for choir, strings and organ
    • "Jubilate Deo Jacob" pro Dominica in albis, pro Feria II. post Pentecostem et in solemnitate corporis Christi, in d minor for choir, strings and organ
    • "Jubilate Deo" pro Festo St. Januarii Episcopus et Mart., pro Festo Ascensionis Domini, in F major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Laetentur insulae" pro Dominica III., IV., V., VI. post Epiphaniam, in F major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Ne quando taceas" pro Dominica VI. post Pentecostem, in d minor for choir, strings and organ
    • "Neque celaveris" de Confessore, in B flat major for choir, strings and organ
    • "Quam admirabile est nomen tuum" pro Festo Sanctissime Trinitatis, in d minor for choir, strings and organ
    • "Tu cognovisti" pro Festo Sanctorum Apostolorum, in d minor for choir, strings and organ
  • Motets and sacred arias and chants
    • "Audimus Dei verbum" - lost -
    • "Contra vos, o monstra horrenda" in B flat major, motet for soprano, choir and orchestra (1769)
    • "Cor meum conturbatum" in g minor for choir and orchestra
    • "Ecce enim veritatem" in G major for bass, three violas, double-bass and organ
    • "Fremat tirannus" in C major, motet for soprano, choir and orchestra (1778)
    • "Magna est virtus" - lost -
    • "Misericordius Dominus" in E flat major, duet for soprano, bass, violine and orchestra
    • "O mortales, festinate" in B flat major, aria for soprano, clarinet and orchestra
    • "Quae est illa" in B flat major, aria in honorem B.V.M. for soprano, oboe, strings and organ
    • "Quem terra pontus sidera" in A major for soprano and orchestra
    • "Salve Jesu pie" duet - lost -
    • "Tu es spes mea, Domine" for soprano, flute, oboe and orchestra


Instrumental music

  • Concertos
    • Concerto for oboe, violin, violoncello and orchestra in D major (1770)
    • Concerto for organ and orchestra in C major (1773) - second movement lost -
    • Concerto for piano and orchestra in C major (1773)
    • Concerto for piano and orchestra in B flat major (1773)
    • Concerto for flute, oboe and orchestra in C major (1774)
    • Concertino da camera for flute and strings G major (1777)
  • Symphonies, overtures and variations
    • Symphonie in D major "Il Giorno onomastico" (1775)
    • Symphonie in D major "La Veneziana" (built from overtures to "La Scuola de´gelosi" and "La Partenza inaspettata")
    • Three minuets for orchestra
    • 26 Variations on "La Follia di Spagna" for orchestra (1815)
    • Allegretto in D major for orchestra
    • Symphonie (ouverture) in C major - overture to "Habsburg" -
    • Overture "La Frascatana"
    • Fragmentary Symphonie (overture) in G major
    • Fragmentary movement for bassoons and strings
  • Serenades
    • "Picciola Serenata" in B flat major for 2 oboes, 2 horns and bassoon (1778)
    • Serenade in B major for 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns and double-bass
    • Serenade in C major for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns and double-bass (alternative version of the serenade in B flat major for seven instruments)
    • Serenade in F major for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns and double-bass
    • Cassation in C major for 2 oboes, 2 english horns, 2 bassoons and 2 horns
    • Three trios in G major, E flat major and C major for 2 Oboes and bassoon
    • "Armonia per und tempio della notte" in E flat major for 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons and 2 horns (ca. 1795)
  • Marches
    • 11 Marches for orchestra (ca. 1804)
    • March for wind ensemble "Prägt tief in eure Herzen, Brüder"
    • "Parademarsch" in C major for wind ensemble
    • March "Die Landwehr" (1809)
    • March in honour of Gassmann in C major for orchestra (1820)
  • Chamber music
    • 4 Scherzi armonici istrumentali for string quartet
    • Fugue for string quartet (tema H.! b.e.n. Die m. ist ein s. Ma non il testo)
    • Fugue for three instruments
    • Fugue in C major for two instruments (1818)
    • Fugue in E flat major for two instruments (Tema Kerscorchiano)
    • 6 little pieces for piano
    • 6 pieces for guitar - lost -


Revisions of other composers' works and joint compositions with other composers

Proponents of the theory that Salieri plotted against Mozart point to a suicide attempt of Salieri in 1823, claiming that it was due to the old composer's guilt over his anti-Mozart activities. However, it is far more plausible that the suicide attempt - if it ever took place - was due to his depression because of the loss of his favorite pupil, twelve-year-old Franz Liszt, who had very recently left on a musical tour of Europe. This would be far more likely to affect Salieri's state of mind than anguish over events that had supposedly happened a third of a century previously.

References

  • Rudolph Angermüller, Antonio Salieri 3 Vol. (München 1971-74)
  • Rudolph Angermüller, Antonio Salieri. Fatti e Documenti (Legnago 1985)
  • Volkmar Braunbehrens, Salieri, ein Musiker im Schatten Mozarts (München 1989), English translation entitled Maligned Master - the Real Story of Antonio Salieri (München 1992)
  • A. Della Corte, Un italiano all'estero: Antonio Salieri (Torino 1936)
  • V. Della Croce/F. Blanchetti, Il caso Salieri (Torino 1994)
  • I. F. Edler v. Mosel, Über das Leben und die Werke des Anton Salieri (Vienna 1827)
  • John A. Rice, Antonio Salieri and Viennese Opera (Chicago 1998)
  • Alexander Wheelock Thayer, Salieri: Rival of Mozart (Kansas City 1989)da:Antonio Salieri

de:Antonio Salieri es:Antonio Salieri fr:Antonio Salieri ko:안토니오 살리에리 it:Antonio Salieri nl:Antonio Salieri ja:アントニオ・サリエリ pl:Antonio Salieri fi:Antonio Salieri sv:Antonio Salieri

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