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Animation

From Academic Kids

Image:Animexample.gif
This animation moves at 10 frames per second.
Image:Animexample2.gif
This animation moves at 2 frames per second. At this rate, the individual frames should be discernible.

Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second, there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Generating such a film is very labour intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process.

Graphics file formats like GIF, MNG and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet.

Contents

Overview

Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce, the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. However, the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s, with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person). Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry.

Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized (some say exploited) by Hanna-Barbera, and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved to movie theaters to television. It is also the basis of animation.

Missing image
Animexample3.png
The animations shown before consist of these 6 frames.

History

For a look at the history of animation, please see the Wikipedia series "History of Animation".

Famous names in animation

Famous names of the past

Famous names of the present day

Animation studios

Animation studios of the past

Animation studios of the present era


Styles of animation

See also: Animated series, Anime (Japanese animation), List of movie genres

Techniques

External links

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de:Animation es:Cine de animacin fa:پویانمایی fr:Film d'animation gl:Cine de animacin ko:만화영화 he:אנימציה nl:Animatie pt:Animao pl:Film animowany ja:アニメーション hu:Animáció ru:Мультипликация fi:Animaatio sv:Animering th:แอนิเมชัน zh:动画

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