From Academic Kids
|History of Western philosophy|
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Europe, the spread of Christianity through the Roman world marked the end of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Mediaeval Philosophy.
- Pericles (495-429)
- Aspasia (469-406)
- Euclid of Megara (450-380)
- Antisthenes (445-360)
- Aristippus (435-356)
- Plato (429-347)
- Xenophon (429-355)
- Speusippus (407-339)
- Diogenes of Sinope (400-325)
- Xenocrates (396-314)
- Aristotle (384-322)
- Stilpo (380-300)
- Theophrastus (370-288)
- Pyrrho (365-275)
- Epicurus (341-270)
- Zeno of Citium (365-263)
- Cleanthes (331-232)
- Timon (320-230)
- Arcesilaus (316-232)
- Menippus (3rd century BC)
- Archimedes (circa 287 BC - 212 BC)
- Chrysippus (280-207)
- Carneades (214-129)
- Philo of Larissa (160-80)
- Posidonius (135-51)
- Cicero (106-43)
- Aenesidemus (1st century BC)
- Lucretius (94-55 BC)
- Philo of Alexandria (30 BC - 45 AD)
- Seneca (4 BC - 65 AD)
- Musonius Rufus (30 AD - 100)
- Plutarch (45-120)
- Epictetus (55-135)
- Marcus Aurelius (121-180)
- Clement of Alexandria (150-215)
- Alcinous (2nd cnetury AD)
- Sextus Empiricus (3rd century AD)
- Alexander of Aphrodisias (3rd century AD)
- Ammonius Saccas (3rd century AD)
- Plotinus (205-270)
- Porphyry (232-304)
- Iamblichus (242-327)
- Themistius (317-388)
- Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
- Proclus (411-485)
- Damascius (462-540)
- Boethius (472-524)
- Simplicius of Cilicia (490-560)
Schools of thought in the Hellenistic period
In the east, Indian philosophy begins with the Vedas where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. In the famous Rigvedic Hymn of Creation the poet says:
"Whence all creation had its origin, he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not, he, who surveys it all from highest heaven, he knows--or maybe even he does not know."
In the Vedic view, creation is ascribed to the self-consciousness of the primeval being (Purusha). This leads to the inquiry into the one being that underlies the diversity of empirical phenomena and the origin of all things. Cosmic order is termed rta and causal law by karma. Nature (prakriti) is taken to have three qualities (sattva, rajas, and tamas).
Classical Indian philosophy
In classical times, these inquiries were systematized in six schools of philosophy. The questions asked were:
- What is the ontological nature of consciousness?
- How is cognition itself experienced?
- Is mind (chit) intentional or not?
- Does cognition have its own structure?
The six schools of Indian philosophy are:
- Chinese philosophy -- Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism
- Buddhist philosophy arose in India but contributions to it were made in China, Japan, and Korea also.
- Eastern philosophy
- Internet sources (http://www.epistemelinks.com/Main/Topics.aspx?TopiCode=Anci)be:Філязофія антычнасьці