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Events and trends
- 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt
- 588 BC - Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon begins siege of Jerusalem
- 586 BC - Jerusalem falls to the Babylonians, ending the Kingdom of Judah. The conquerors destroy the Temple of Jerusalem and exile the land's remaining inhabitants.
- 586 BC - Death of Zhou ding wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
- 585 BC - May 28 - A solar eclipse occurrs as predicted by Thales, while Alyattes II is battling Cyaxares. This leads to a truce. This is one of the cardinal dates from which other dates can be calculated.
- 585 BC - Zhou jian wang becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty of China.
- 582 BC - Pythian Games founded at Delphi. (traditional date)
- 580 BC - Cambyses I succeeds Cyrus I as king of Anshan and head of the Achaemenid dynasty. (approximate date)
- 580 BC - Isthmian Games founded at Corinth. (traditional date)